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Для выражения сравнения существует также ряд

конструкций


Конструкция

Значение

Перевод

Пример

As + положит. степ.+ as
The same ... as


Равная степень качества


Такой же … как

He is as cheerful as his brother.

Tom is the same age as Bill.



twice as ...as
three times as...as
half as much/many
half the size
half the age
half the weight

Различие степеней качества в разы

В 2 раза
В 3 раза
В 2 раза меньше

В 2 раза меньше

В 2 раза моложе

В 2 раза легче



He is twice as old.

Their house is 3 times as big as mine.

This room is half the size as yours.

He is half my age.

I am half your weight.


Not so+положит. степ.+ as

Not as+положит. степ.+ as



Отрицание равенства степени качества

Не такой … как

This table is not so small as that one.

The + сравн. степень,

the + сравн. степень


the warmer…,

the better



Зависимость одного от другого

Чем + сравнит. степень, тем + сравнит. степень
Чем теплее…,

тем лучше



The warmer the weather, the better I feel. (Чем теплее погода, тем лучше я себя чувствую)

more / less than

+положит. степ.




Превышение степени качества предмета

Более чем
Менее чем

I was more than pleased with my pay rise.

Much / a lot / a great deal / far

+ сравн. степ

much cheaper
far more serious


Значительное превышение качества одного предмета над другим

гораздо (намного)

намного дешевле

гораздо серьезнее



Let’s go by car.

It’s much cheaper.

Her illness was far more serious than we at first thought.


a bit / a little

+ сравн. степ.




Незначительное превышение

Немножко (чуточку)

теплее


It’s a little warmer today than it was yesterday.


Ex. 1. Choose the right forms in these sentences.

1. Is your house much (further/farther)? 2. Who is the (oldest/eldest) in this class? 3. Your driving is (worse/worst) than mine. 4. It’s the (less/lesser) of two evils. 5. Have you heard the (last/latest) news? 6. We have no (further/farther) information. 7. Jane Somers writes (good/well). 8. His (latest/last) words were: “The end”. 9. This is the town’s (oldest/eldest) house. 10. My flat is (littler/smaller) than yours. 11. I’ve got (less/lesser) than you. 12. Jane is (older/elder) than I am. 13. This is the (more/most) expensive. 14. His English is (best/better) than mine. 15. It’s the (better/best) in the shop. 16. It’s the (furthest/farthest) point west. 17. It’s the (oldest/eldest) tree in the country. 18. She’s my (elder/older) sister. 19. I’ve got the (least/less)! 20. You’ve got the (more/most)!


Ex. 2. Use the correct form of the adjectives in brackets.

1. Who was (late) person to leave the building yesterday? 2. (Near) train for Cardiff leaves in an hour. 3. They realized their plan without (far) difficulties. 4. Nell is three years (old) than her husband. 5. Her (old) brother is a well-known pianist. 6. The car was parked in (far) corner of the yard. 7. You will get (far) instructions in a few days. 8. It's (bad) weather we've had for a long time. 9. Can you tell me the way to (near) post office? 10. Hilda is (old) in the family. 11. What do you think of his (late) play? I like it much (good) than his (late) one. 12. I'm looking forward to his (near) letter. 13. Who's (good) footballer in the team? 14. She's actually a good deal (old) than she looks. 15. My (old) daughter does nearly all the housework. 16. Mercury is (near) to the sun and Pluto is (far). 17. You should get the patient to (near) doctor as soon as possible. 18. Your ability to remember things gets (bad) as the years go by. 19. Are there any (far) questions?



Ex. 3. Complete the sentences with expressions from the box. Use the … the.

Example: ___ Mark gets, ___he looks like his grandfather.



The older Mark gets, the more he looks like his grandfather.


older/more more/more older/darker more/angrier

warmer/more longer/more faster/more more/less

more/more/less




  1. ____he drove, ____we laughed.

  2. ____I live here, ____I like it.

  3. ____I get, ____my hair gets.

  4. ____money he lost, ____it made him.

  5. ____I learn, ____I forget and ____I know.

  6. ____I get to know you, ____I understand you.

  7. ____clothes she buys, ____clothes she wants to buy.

  8. ____it got. ____time we spent on the beach.


Ex. 4. Circular situations: make sentences like the one in the example.

He drives fast; he gets nervous.



The faster he drives, the more nervous he gets; and the more nervous he gets, the faster he drives.

  1. He eats ice cream; he gets fat. (The more ice cream …)

  2. He reads; he forgets.

  3. She ignores him; he loves her.

  4. She buys shoes; she wants shoes.

  5. We spend money; we have friends.

  6. I sleep; I’m tired.

  7. (Make your own sentences.)

  8. (Make your own sentences.)


Ex. 5. Translate the sentences using the model.

Model: The earlier we leave, the sooner we'll arrive. Чем раньше мы выедем, тем скорее мы приедем.



  1. Чем дольше он ждал, тем больше он терял терпение, (become impatient).

  2. Чем больше я его узнаю (get to know), тем больше он мне нравится.

  3. Чем больше ты упражняешься в английском, тем быстрее ты изучишь его.

  4. Чем дольше ты говоришь по телефону, тем больше ты должен платить.

  5. Чем больше товаров вы продаете, тем больше доход, (make profit).

Ex. 6. Use a bit/a little/much/a lot/far before comparatives.

Example: You're driving too fast, (a bit/slowly). Can you drive a bit more slowly?

1. His songs are .........than his operas, (much/famous).

2. It is ...................... in February than in March, (a bit/windy).

3. I found the museum .............than I had expected, (far/interesting).

4. I am .....................................today than I was yesterday, (a lot/tired).

5. I prefer this armchair. It's .......... the other one. (much/comfortable).

6. This flat is too small for me. I need something ........... (much/big).
Ex. 7. Translate the words in brackets.

1. This is (самая интересная книга) I have ever read on this subject.

2. Swimming is (крайне популярный) summer sport.

3. Shakespeare is (самый выдающийся) English poet and playwright of all the ages.

4. Coal is (крайне важный) important natural resource.

5. He is (весьма умный) man.


Ex. 8. Make sentences with "the same ... as".

Example: (your hair/the same colour/mine) Your hair is the same colour as mine.

1. (this suit / same size / that one)

2. (I arrived here /the same time / you)

3. (we/the same house/yours)


Ex. 9. Use the correct form of the adjectives in brackets.

1. Health and happiness are (important) than money. 2. I prefer this armchair. It's (comfortable) than the other one. 3. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be much (expensive). 4. She is a very intelligent student. She is (intelligent) student in our school. 5. This hat is too small for me. I need a (big) size. 6. The station wasn't as (near) as I had expected. 7. Her illness was (serious) than we at first thought. 8. It's (funny) story I've ever heard. 9. My salary isn't so (high) as yours. 10. This furniture is too expensive for me. I would like to buy (cheap) furniture. 11. It's too noisy here. Can we go somewhere (quiet). 12. He is (famous) singer in the country. 13. A big car is (expensive) to run than a small car. 14. I'm getting too old. This job is for a (young) man. 15. Children nowadays seem to be much (smart) than they used to be. 16. You certainly look (happy) than you did yesterday. 17. When the children get a bit older they will need a (big) house. 18. I know the exams are (difficult) time of the year for students. 19. He was much the same as I had remembered him, though he had grown (heavy) and (thickset). But his hair was even (dark) and he had a (pleasant) expression. 20. They were suspicious of us at first but eventually they became (friendly) and (relaxed).


Ex. 10. Put in the right forms.

THE CHAMP (победитель)

The two men were sitting at the bar. The one (near) to me was the (big) and (strong) man I have ever seen. The one (far) from me was the (small) and (weak). They were having the (violent) argument I had ever heard. Suddenly the little man said, “It’s a case of the (small) brain in the world fitted into a (big) head!” They were his (late) words. The little man didn’t know what hit him as he fell to the floor. “When Shortie wakes up, tell him that was my (good) Karate chop,” the big man told the barman as he left. The next evening, King Karate was at the bar as usual when Shortie crept in quietly, swung his arm and the champ fell to the floor. “When Karate wakes up,” Shortie said, “tell him it was my (old) Land Rover starting handle.”
Ex. 11. Use the required form of the adjective in the following sentences.

a) 1. The sound grew (faint) and (faint). 2. He's a far (intelligent) person than my brother. 3. She was the (practical) of the family. 4. He thought how much (advanced) and broad-minded the (young) generation was. 5. I wanted to ask you both what you thought of my (late) film if you saw it. 6. The first edition of the dictionary is (good), the new one is still (good). 7. He turned out to be (angry) than I had expected. 8. Today I'm no (wise) than yesterday. 9. The (much) we go into the matter, the much (complex) it becomes. 10. Jack is the (clever) of the three brothers. 11. They are (good) people, far (good) than you. 12. He felt (bad) yesterday than the day before. 13. The (near) house is three miles away. 14. He was the (last) man to come. 15. The (long) the night, the (short) the day. 16. He is the (tall) of the two. 17. She is (amusing) in a small company. 18. My brother is much (young) than myself.


Ex. 12. A. Complete using comparatives of the adjectives in brackets; add than when necessary.

«Oh, why is English such a difficult language! I think it is (difficult) French. Sometimes I feel that my English is getting (bad), not (good)! When you first start learning English, it seems (easy) other languages and the grammar looks (much/ simple). However, when you become (a little/advanced), it gets (a lot/complicated). There are also so many words in English! The dictionary I bought when I first came to Britain is far too simple. I'm already looking for something (big) and (comprehensive).

B. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form. Add the or a, where necessary.

1. Two weeks ago I went down town to buy a birthday present for my (old) sister. You couldn't meet (wonderful) person than her. She is one of (charming) women I know. She is also (generous-hearted) person I've ever met. Mother says she could be a bit (tidy) than she is. Anyway, the present I wanted to buy her had to be (good) I could afford.

Eventually, I came across (beautiful) scarf I had ever seen. Imagine my disappointment when I discovered the next day that Mother had bought her exactly the same scarf.

2. One of (embarrassing) experiences that can happen to anyone is to meet old friends, and not recognize them. I once had to welcome a group of students at the airport. I knew (old) person, a Madame Dufort, would be in charge of them, and when the group appeared, this woman came towards me, smiling, and said: “Doctor, what a pleasant surprise!” If I had been (quick) and (intelligent) I would have said brightly: “How nice to see you, my dear!” as if she were my (old) friend, but I just stood there, my face getting (red) and (red), trying to remember her. The (bad) thing about it was that she got even (embarrassed) than I was, and said: «You don't remember me,» still not giving me (slight) clue. Fortunately, my wife, who is (quick-thinking) and (well-mannered) than I am, said: «Of course he does, Nicole, but he's (absent-minded) person in the world». Nicole had been a student of mine years before, but she looked much (old), her hair was going grey, and her face had more lines in it than is usual at her age. She had got married, too, so her name was changed, and I find names (easy) to remember than faces.


Ex. 13. Right or wrong. Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. The more you study, the smarter you will become. 2. The weather is much more worse today. 3. She is not as easy to get on with than her sister. 4. I feel much better today than I did last week. 5. I know my jokes are bad, but yours are badder. 6. Nick looks elder than his older brother. 7. Ann plays the piano very well, but Christina plays more well. 8. Flying is much fast than travelling by car. 9. We are going to travel by car. It’s much cheaper. 10. If you don’t want to be tired in the morning, you should go to bed more early. 11. Could you speak a little more lower? 12. Jack has eaten three times as many hamburgers as Jim. 13. You should practise more often if you want to improve your language. 14. You should be far more serious when you talk to your partner. 15. Einstein is one of intelligent scientists who ever lived. 16. Watermelons are much sweeter than lemons. 17. A train is the uncomfortablest place to sleep in. 18. She knows French much more better than she does German. 19. This meal is much better than as the one I ate yesterday. 20. What we need is a more good job! 21. It’s best picture I have ever seen. 22. Their house is far better than ours. 23. It’s becoming more and more serious to find a job. 24. The sooner you take your medicine, the better you will feel.


Ex.14. Translate the words in brackets.

1. This jacket is too small. I need (больший размер)

2. He's not so keen on his studies. He's (больше интересуется) in sports and music.

3. You'll find your way around the town (легче) if you have a map.

4. You're making too much noise. Can you be (немного потише)?

5. There were a lot of people on the bus. It was (более заполненным) than usual.

6. You're late. I expected you to be here (раньше).

7. You hardly ever write to me. Why don't you write (немного чаще)?

8. The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be (гораздо дороже).

9. It's a pity you live so far away. I wish you lived (поближе).


Ex. 15. Translate these sentences into English.

1. Мой отец был старшим сыном в семье. 2. Знаете ли вы последние новости? 3. Это здание не самое высокое в городе. 4. Этот путь короче, давай выберем его. 5. Это самый трудный вопрос по этой теме. 6. Ваш брат старше вас? – Нет, он на 3 года моложе меня. 7. Он самый счастливый человек на свете. 8. Эта статья интереснее моей? 9. Он самый талантливый из молодых художников. 10. Ваша проблема гораздо сложнее моей. 11. Эта аудитория меньше нашей. 12. Ваш доклад был гораздо интереснее его доклада. 13. Жизнь не так трудна, как вам кажется. 14. Моя старшая сестра учится в Англии.15. Этот текст такой же простой, как и следующий. 16. Ваш чемодан гораздо тяжелее моего. 17. Он чувствовал себя все лучше и лучше.


18. Она была гораздо моложе своей сестры. И менее серьезна.
19. Февраль – самый короткий месяц в году. 20. Нынешнее лето – самое сухое, не правда ли? 21. Мое пальто такое же теплое, как ваше. 22. Сегодня ветер не такой сильный, как вчера. 23. Он сейчас гораздо серьезнее, чем раньше. 24. Этот текст самый трудный из всех текстов, которые мы когда-либо переводили.
25. Это крайне важный вопрос. 26. Большинство моих приятелей студенты. 27. По правде говоря, это самое трудное упражнение, которое я когда-либо делал. 28. Не бери такси. Это будет намного дороже. 29. Здоровье и счастье важнее денег. 30. Их старший сын журналист, да? 31. Ее квартира такая же уютная, как твоя?
32. Париж такой же красивый, как и Рим. 33. Большинство людей любит фрукты. 34. Англичане пьют больше чая, чем американцы. 35. Лох-Несс – самое большое озеро в Шотландии. 36. Она гораздо разговорчивее, чем ее сестра, 37. Твой магнитофон такой же хороший, как и наш. 38. На этот раз у вас больше/меньше ошибок. 39. Эта книга менее интересна, чем та. 40. Чем больше я общаюсь с ней, тем больше она мне нравится. 41. Его шутка была не такой остроумной» как ее. 42. Я не могу нести эту сумку. Она гораздо тяжелее, чем я думал. 43. Практические занятия такие же интересные, как и лекции. 44. Это была самая серьезная ошибка, которую я когда-либо совершал. 45. В этой комнате меньше мебели, не так ли? 46. Дмитрий такой же высокий, как и его брат. 47. Чем больше я слушаю тебя, тем меньше понимаю. 48. Это самая старая часть города. Здесь всегда много туристов.
49. Сегодня не самая плохая погода, не так ли? 50. Мой друг – самый надежный человек.

THE PRONOUN
Personal and Possessive Pronouns




Лицо

Личные

местоимения

Притяжательные местоимения


Именит. падеж



Объектный падеж

I форма

(справа стоит существи-тельное)

II форма (существ. справа нет)

1.

2.
3.




I

he



she

it


me – мне, меня

him – ему, его



her – ей, ее

it – его, ее



my – мой, мои

his – его



her – ее

its – его, ее



mine

his



hers

its


1.

2.

3.



we

you


they

us – нам, нас

you – вам, вас

them – им, их


our – наш, наши

your – ваш, ваши

their – их


ours

yours


theirs


Ex. 1. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold type.

1. Research shows that one of the most overused words in any language is the word for I. Changing I to me (or vice versa) brings greater variety to your speech and writing. 2. Just between you and me, this course is a disaster. 3. It takes two, me and you, to make a dream come true. 4. Hello! Is that me you are looking for? 5. The relationship between them was often strained. 6. Look at the fish. It is alive! 7. He wanted her to go to a movie with him. 8. — Who is there? — It is I (me). 9. Max loved ice-cream more than she. 10. The future is yours, don't let them take it from you. 11. My name should come after yours if the list is alphabetical. 12. Will you share your life with mine? 13. Everything I have is yours. 14. The responsibility is hers. 15. You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. 16. Jack and Amelia changed my life, just as I changed theirs. 17. "By the way, Catherine sends her love to you and Pete." — Blanche smiled. "And give her ours." 18. Theirs was a true love story. 19. I don't want any partners. I want this business to really be mine. 20. Like most people who keep diaries, Judy usually writes in hers each evening. 21. Is there any place for me in this heart of yours, Susan?




Ex. 2. Read the text about Keiko Wilson. It's not very natural. Which nouns can you replace with pronouns or possessive adjectives? Underline them. Rewrite the text to make it more natural.

Keiko Wilson is Japanese, but Keiko lives in New-York because Keiko is married to an American. Keiko is an interpreter. Keiko lives in New York because New York is interesting, but Keiko's husband, Walter, doesn't like New York. Walter wants to leave and live in the country.

Keiko and Walter have two children. Walter takes the two children and the two children's dog out of the city in Walter's free time. Walter and the children go walking in summer and skiing in winter, but Keiko doesn't go with Walter and the children because Keiko doesn't have any free time.
Ex. 3. Choose the correct pronoun.


  1. Bob is one of (our, us, ours) best pupils.

  2. It isn't (my, mine) bag. I've left (my, me, mine) at home.

  3. I've just waxed the floor. Don't walk on (it’s, it, its) yet.

  4. Let (they, them, their) read the story again.

  5. (You, your, yours) ticket is on the table and where is (her, she, hers)!

  1. (Your, you, yours) house is not far from (our, us, ours).

  2. Whose cigarettes are these? They may be (our, ours) cigarettes. Oh, yes, they are (our, ours).

  3. (Our, ours) car is faster than (their, theirs).

  4. Could you help me sort out these things? I cannot tell which are (your, you, yours) and which are (we, our, ours).

  5. This is not (my, mine, me) car. (My, Mine, Me) is a 1980 model.

  6. We know (they, them, theirs) very well and both Peter and Nell know (we, us, ours).

12. You can do it without (mine, my, me) help but not without (they,

their, theirs).

  1. Can I borrow (your, yours, you) umbrella? — I'm sorry, it isn't (me, my, mine).

  2. Who told you about it? — A friend of (you, your, yours).

  3. This suitcase isn't (us, our, ours). There's somebody's name on it.


Ex. 4. Translate into English.

1. Можно мне воспользоваться твоим принтером? Мой ремонтируют. 2. Этот калькулятор наш, а тот их. 3. Это редкая книга, ее стоимость очень высока. 4. Ты знаешь, что все, что я имею — твое. 5. Не паркуй свою машину рядом с моей. 6. Это недорогой фотоаппарат, но его качество хорошее. 7. Все это случилось не по моей вине. 8. Ты не знаешь, что это такое — быть мной. 9. Конференция открывается через несколько дней, а ее программа еще неизвестна. 10. Ну что же, выбор за вами.


11. Он рассказал мне свою историю жизни (life story), а я свою. 12. Один из ваших пациентов только что звонил. 13. Он закончил письмо и подписался «Искренне Ваш Роберт».

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