|страница 1 ... страница 10страница 11страница 12страница 13страница 14
be afraid of (smth/smb) - бояться чего-л./кого-л.
ask for smth - (по)просить что-л.
belong to smb - принадлежать кому-л.
depend on - зависеть от
explain smth to smb - объяснять что-л. кому-л.
be good at smth - иметь способности к чему-л.
happen to- случаться, происходить
laugh at smth., smb. - смеяться над чем-л., кем-л.
listen to smb/smth - слушать кого-л./что-л.
look at smth. - смотреть на что-л.; for - искать; after - присматривать, заботиться; through- просматривать (бумаги, газеты)
pay attention to smth., smb. - обращать внимание на что-л.,
a reason for smth.- причина чего-л.
speak to (with) smb - говорить с кем-л.
wait for smb/smth - ждать кого-л./чего-л.
Ex. 1. Fill the blanks with the following prepositions: in, on, at, from, since, by, for:
Ex. 2. Choose the right preposition and fill the blanks:
1. A - among; B – between
1. Bus № 15 runs … Piccadilly Circus and Trafalgar Square. 2. They like to walk in the forest … the high trees. 3. Where is Ann? She is sitting … Tom and Jack. 4. I can't find my handkerchief … all those things. 5. This electric train goes … the town and the country. 6. Your book is … those, lying on the table. 7. These two boys often quarrel … themselves. 8. Tom has a lot of things in his pocket, a little penknife is … them. 9. Let it stay … you and me. 10. He is lying on the grass … beautiful flowers.
Ex. 3. . A - above; B - below; C - over; D – under
1. This staircase leads … to the second floor. 2. I can see everything from … . 3. The child is still … five. 4. Pay attention to the mentioned facts. Let's talk them … . 5. He likes to stand on the hill-top and look at the plains … him. 6. The new bridge … the river is very beautiful. 7. It's cold today. What's the temperature? - It's 15 degrees … zero. 8. Birds are flying … our heads. 9. He likes to pull his hat … his eyes. 10. A. Pushkin is famous all … the world. 11. The cat is lying … the chair. 12. His coat reaches … (lower) the knee. 13. The film is … . Let's go out. 14. … these circumstances it is impossible to fulfill my promise. 15. I often listen to the latest news … the radio.
Ex. 4. A - about; B - after; C - before; D - till; C – until
1. I'll wait for you at … 6 o'clock. 2. What happened … I left you? 3. There are many important tasks … us. 4. We shall work … late at night. 5. They are walking … the park. 6. There are … 30 pupils in our class. 7. He continued his work … dinner. 8. Wait … the rain stops. 9. Pete will be at school from nine … two o'clock. 10. Who are you speaking … ? 11. They left the room one … another. 12. We shall see him … long. 13. They were … to leave when I came. 14. The workers will finish their work … the end of the week. 15. What's the time now? It's … five o'clock.
Ex. 5. Fill the blanks with prepositions:
1. What happened … your friend? 2. Don't laugh … people in trouble. 3. It all depends … the situation. 4. He needs a nurse to look … him. 5. I'll wait … you outside. 6. I'm not going to listen … his stories again. 7. She paid no attention … my words. 8. Look … the lights before you cross the road. 9. Are you afraid … mice? 10. Is he still looking … a job? 11. Will you help me to look … these papers, please? 12. He is good … playing chess. 13. Will you explain this grammar rule … me, please? 14. He is always asking … money. 15. Could I speak … you? 16. What is the reason … her leaving? 17. This book belongs … my father.
Ex. 6. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Он приехал в Эдинбург в 1985. До этого он жил в Глазго. 2. Мой друг живет рядом с нами. 3. На стене над диваном висела большая картина. 4. Я тебе позвоню вечером в пятницу. 5. Кто-то остановился за дверью. 6. Она стояла за деревом, и никто не видел ее. 7. Лондон знаменит своими старинными парками. 8. Больше всего я боюсь змей. 9. Он мой самый лучший друг, и я не могу положиться на него. 10. Неужели есть причина для такого поведения. 11. Ты разочарован своей оценкой по английскому языку? 12. Я буду ждать вас до 8 часов. 13. Дождь начался рано утром и продолжался до вечера. 14. Переходите улицу только на углу. 15. Весной, в конце мая, стоят теплые дни.
THE ENGLISH NUMERAL
Numerals are subdivided into two groups: cardinal (количественные числительные) and ordinal (порядковые числительные). See the table below.
Cardinal and Ordinal Numerals
1 — one the first
2 — two the second
3 — three the third
4 — four the fourth
5 — five the fifth
6 — six the sixth
7 — seven the seventh
8 — eight the eighth
9 — nine the ninth
10 — ten the tenth
11 — eleven the eleventh
12 — twelve the twelfth
13 — thirteen the thirteenth
14 — fourteen the fourteenth
15 — fifteen the fifteenth
16 — sixteen the sixteenth
17 — seventeen the seventeenth
18 — eighteen the eighteenth
19 — nineteen the nineteenth
20 — twenty the twentieth
30 — thirty the thirtieth
40 — forty the fortieth
50 — fifty the fiftieth
60 — sixty the sixtieth
70 — seventy the seventieth
80 — eighty the eightieth
90 — ninety the ninetieth
100 — a/one hundred the (one) hundredth
200 — two hundred the two hundredth
1,000 — a/one thousand the (one) thousandth
1,345 — a/one thousand three the (one) thousand three hundred
hundred and forty-five and forty-fifth
• In cardinal numerals which consist of tens (десятки) and units (единицы) the two words are hyphenated (пишутся через дефис).
56 — fifty-six, 91 — ninety-one
• When cardinal numerals ending in one (like thirty-one, fifty-one) are used before a noun, they require the plural form of the noun.
thirty-one students, forty-one years
(Compare with Russian тридцать один студент, сорок один год, where the noun is used in the singular.)
• The numerals hundred, thousand and million used in the singular are always preceded by the Indefinite article a or the numeral one.
When the numerals hundred, thousand or million are preceded a number other than one, they do not take the ending -s.
400 children (four hundred)
5,900 people (five thousand nine hundred)
8,600,000 dollars (eight million six hundred thousand)
• The cardinal numerals dozen, ten, hundred, thousand, million take the plural ending -s before of+ a plural noun if the above numerals are not preceded by another numeral or a pronoun.
millions of stars, dozens of eggs, thousands of books, hundreds of thousands of people, etc.
but: many thousand people, two hundred chairs, three dozen eggs
• Cardinal numerals are used to indicate the number with nouns like page, sentence, Ex., room, chapter, volume, paragraph, apartment, tram, etc. In such cases the numeral is placed after the noun and the noun is used without an article.
However, ordinal numerals can sometimes be used here as well.
Paragraph 3, or the third paragraph
World War II, or the Second World War
In similar cases in Russian ordinal numerals are preferable.
Читайте урок восьмой на девяносто третьей странице.
As regards the names of kings and queens, only ordinal numerals are here.
Henry VIII – Henry the Eighth
Elizabeth II – Elizabeth the Second
Peter I – Peter the First
Dates are written and read in the following way:
1st September, 1986 - The first of September nineteen (hundred and) eighty-six
May 5, 2006 = May the fifth, twenty hundred and six or / thousand six or two thousand six
In British English dates are written numerically with the day first and American English the month comes first.
10/4/2005 - 10th April, 2005 (British)
4/10/2005 - 10th April, 2005 (American)
Cardinal numerals are also used to denote decades. In these cases the numeral takes the definite article and the ending -s.
the 50s, the 70s, the 1980s = the fifties, the seventies, the nineteen eighties
However, an apostrophe (') after the numeral may also occur here.
In the early 60's of the last century platform shoes were all vogue.
Vulgar fractions Decimal fractions
⅛ an (one) eighth 0.125 (nought) point one two e
¼ a (one) quarter 0.25 (nought) point two five 4
⅓ a (one) third 0.33 (nought) point three three
½ a (one) half 0.75 (nought) point seven five
¾ three quarters
1. What shoe size are you? — I take a size 38 in shoes.
2. She is a size 12 in clothes.
3. The flat is roughly 360 square feet in size.
4. My bedroom is three metres by four.
5. She is two years older than me.
6. We were half an hour late.
7. Your flat is twice as big as ours.
8. She is a three-month-old baby.
He is a twenty-year-old youth.
Nick is a child of six.
9. He is doing seventy kilometres an hour.
10. He is leaving by the six thirty-five train.
11. I've told you about it a thousand times (thousands of times).
12. It's a two-minute walk from my house or
13. He'll be back in half an hour.
14. An hour and a half is enough for the test.
15. He graduated from the University in the year of 2005.
16. Today is 25° above zero in the shade.
17. They were in their (early/mid/late) teens when I first met them.
18. She was a beautiful woman in her (early/mid/late) thirties.
A schoolboy was asked how many wars Spain had had in the fifteenth century.
"Six," replied the boy promptly.
"Enumerate them," said the teacher.
"1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,” said the boy.
One day a farmer, who had twenty pigs, sent his servant to count them and see if they were all there. The servant came back slowly.
"Well," said his master, "are they all right?"
"Ah! I counted nineteen, but one little fellow ran about so fast I wasn't able to count him at all".
Ex. 3. Do the sums.
Model A: 2 + 5 = 7 Two plus (and) five is seven.
Model B: 7 – 3 = 4 Seven minus (take away) three is four.
Model C: 3 x 2 = 6 Three multiplied by (times) two is six.
Model D: 9 : 3 = 3 Nine divided by three is three.
3+4= 12+13= 19-4= 195-70=
5+6= 14+15= 18-5= 280-52=
7+2= 16+17= 17-6= 467-13=
8+9= 18+19= 16-8= 748-23=
2x9= 9x3= 54:6= 72:8=
3x8= 8x4= 18:2= 45:9=
4x7= 7x5= 21:7= 90:6=
5x6= 6x6= 15:3= 24:3=
¼+¼= ⅛+¾= ⅜+⅛=
Ex. 4. Say that you have, want or offer something.
Ex. 5. Reproduce the dialogues. Make dialogues using the prompts.
1. — I'd like some stamps please.
— How many stamps would you like?
— Three please.
2. — May I have three stamps please?
— Of course. Anything else?
— No, thank you.
Prompts: four records, five tickets, six seats, half a dozen eggs, eight ice-creams, eleven bars of bottles of milk, two cups of coffee.
Ex. 6. Ask your neighbour the time.
Model: — What's the time please?
— It's five o'clock.
It's a quarter past (to) two.
It's half past four.
It's twenty eight minutes past (to) nine.
1900 nineteen hundred
1901 nineteen one (nineteen oh one, nineteen hundred and one)
1905 nineteen live
1910 nineteen ten
1917 nineteen seventeen
1941 nineteen forty-one
2000 two thousand
1. When were you born? 2. When did you go to school? 3. When did you finish school? 4. When did you enter the University? 5. When did you take part in the election for the first time? 6. When did the II World War begin? 7. When was Vitebsk found? 8. When will the next winter (summer) Olympic Games be held?
Ex. 8. Consult the table. Convert the following British measures of length and weight to the metric system.
Model: 2 inches are equal to 5 centimeters; 1 pound is equal to 450 grams
Prompts: 4 inches (10 centimeters), 3 feet 3 inches ( 1 meter), 4 feet (1 meter 22 centimeters). 4 feet 6 indies (1 meter 37 centimeters), 5 feet (l meter 53 centimeters), 5 feet 6 inches (1 meter 68 centimeters), 6 feet (1 meter 83 centimeters), 3 pounds (1 kilo 350 grams), 16 ounces (450 grams), 2 stones (12 kilo 250 grams).
Ex. 9. Convert the following British measures of distance to the metric system.
Model: 1 mile = 1.6 kilometers (One mile is equal to one point six kilometers or one kilometer six hundred meters).
Ex. 10. Convert Fahrenheit to Centigrade (Fahrenheit is converted to Centigrade by subtracting 32 and multiplying by 5/9, Centigrade to Fahrenheit by multiplying by 9/5 and adding 32).
Model: 212°F = 100 С (Two hundred and twelve degrees F are equal to one hundred degrees Centigrade).
Prompts: 104°F = 40°C; 98.4°F = 36.9C;
86°F = 30°C; 68°F =20°C;
50°F = 10°C; 32°F = 0°C;
23°F = -5°C; 0°F = -18°C.
Ex.11. Read the table of British and American money and memorize it.
BRITISH AM E RIСA N
Pounds (£); Pence (p); £ 1 = 100 p Dollars ($ ); Cents (¢); $1 = 100
½ p a half penny 1 ¢ a cent, one cent, a penny
1 p a penny (one p) 5 ¢ five cents, a nickel
2 p two pence (two p) 10 ¢ ten cents, a dime
5 p five pence (five p) 25 ¢ twenty-five cents, a quarter
50 p fifty pence (fifty p) 50 ¢ fifty cents, half a dollar (a half dollar)
£ 1 a pound, one pound $1 a dollar, one dollar
£ 5 five pounds $5 five dollars
£ 10 ten pounds $10 ten dollars
£ 20 twenty pounds $20 twenty dollars
£ 2.72 two pounds seventy-two $2.72 two dollars seventy-two cents
— Are the shoes all right?
— Er — no, I'm afraid they arc not big enough.
— Well try these (on). They are bigger.
— They are fine. What are they made of?
— How much are they please? (How much do they cost?)
Prompts: trousers (wool, £ 19.98); jeans (cotton, £ 9.97); gloves (leather, £ 7.76); tights (nylon, 58p).
— Is the suit all right?
— Er — no. I'm afraid it's (a little) too small.
— Well, try this one (on). It's bigger.
— It's fine. What's it made of?
— Wool and cotton.
— How much is it please? (How much does it cost?)
Prompts: a blouse (silk, £ 17.67), a dress (cotton, £ 12), a shirt, (wool and cotton, £ 6.79), a coat (leather, £ 111.89).
Ex. 13. Answer the questions. Write the numbers in full.
1. How many minutes are there in two hours? 2. How many kilometers are there in a mile? 3. What is your normal temperature? 4. How much do you weigh? 5. How many cents are there in $2.5? 6. How many days are there in a year? 7. What is your telephone number? 8. What is the number of your flat? 9. What is the approximate population of Belarus?
Ex. 14. Make short dialogues by analogy.
Model: – When was Charles Dickens born?
– Charles Dickens, probably the best-known and best-loved English novelists, was born on February 7, 1812. He died at the age of 58.
1. Charlotte Bronte (April 25, 1816; whose name is mentioned among the representatives of the brilliant school of British novelists of the 19th century; 1855; 39).
2. William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811; one of the greatest English novelists; 1863; 52).
3. Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667; the greatest English satirical writers; 1745; 78).
4. Mark Twain (November 30, 1835; the most out-standing American writer of the 2nd half of the 19th century; 1910; 75).
5. Jack London (January 12, 1876; оne of the greatest American writers; 1916; 40).
6. George Gordon Byron (January 22, 1788; one of the greatest English poets, the poet of liberty, an outstanding representative of revolutionary romanticism in England; 1824; 36)
7. Robert Burns (January 25, 1759; the greatest poet of Scotland; 1796; 37).
8. Henry Longfellow (February 27, 1807; one of the most famous American poets; 1882; 75).
9. William Shakespeare (April 23, 1564; the greatest English writer; 1616; 52).
10.George Bernard Shaw (July 26, 1856; one of the greatest playwrights, and one of the most important representatives of critical realism in English literature; 1950; 94).
1) a five-year-old 2) five years old
3) fifth year old 4) five-year old
1) early forties 2) mid forty's
3) early fortieth 4) early forty's
1) two millions people 2) two million people
3) two millionth of people 4) two million's people
1) a four-month-old 2) a fourth months old
3) the fourth month old 4) four months old
1) dozens 2) dozen
3) dozenth 4) dozen of
1) hundreds 2) hundred of
3) hundreds of 4) hundred
1) a hundred 2) hundreds of
3) hundreds in 4) the hundredth
1) the size 36 2) the size 36th
3) a size 36 4) 36th size
1) 1930th 2) the 1930s
3) the 1930th 4) a 1930s
1) hundred years 2) the hundredth year
3) a hundred years' 4) a hundreds year
Ex. 16. Translate the fragment in brackets into English using the appropriate numerals.
1. The lecture will be held in (аудитории 212). 2. You can see (тысячи звезд) in the sky. 3. I was given (двухнедельный) holiday. 4. Every (пятый) person has a personal computer. 5. My elder brother is (на 5 лет старше, чем) you. 6. We've been waiting for delivery now for about (полтора месяца). 7. (Вторая) part of the lesson was devoted to practising the language in pairs. 8. I needn't have run all the way to the station. The train was late (на10 минут). 9. The waxworks in Madam Tussaud's are visited by over (два миллиона) people a year. 10. (Первые) settlements appeared in North America in (восемнадцатом) century.
Ex. 17. Correct the mistakes (if any) in these sentences.
1. The radio said that there were more than ten thousands people taking part in the meeting. 2. She bought two dozens eggs. 3. My birthday is on the twenty-one of March. 4. His telephone number is four six seven, five nought, nine two. 5. There are two hundred fifteen pages in this book. 6. Write down the following: zero point six hundred and twelve plus six point nought two. 7. This is twenty-five per cents of the total. 8. The game ended with the score three nought. 9. The temperature is two degrees below oh. 10. He was born in nineteen eighty-first.
Ex. 18. Translate into English. Write the numbers in full.
1. Он заплатил за это ожерелье (necklace) пятнадцать с половиной тысяч долларов. 2. Подождите полчаса, пожалуйста. Документы скоро будут готовы. 3. Нам нужно спешить. Самолет улетает через полтора часа. 4. Сколько безработных (unemployed) в этом городе?— На сегодняшний день 2338 человек. 5. Джейн купила три дюжины яиц. 6. Он родился 3 октября 1979 года. 7. На митинге присутствовало три тысячи студентов. 8. Тысячи студентов заканчивают колледжи Оксфорда и Кембриджа ежегодно. 9. Миллионы звезд ярко мерцали (sparkle) на черном южном небе. 10. Если тебе нужно вызвать пожарную команду (fire brigade), звони 01. 11. Его состояние (fortune) составляет три миллиона долларов. 12. Одна четверть равна 25-ти процентам. 13. Этот замок (castle) был построен во времена Генриха V. 14. Один дюйм (inch) равен двум с половиной сантиметрам. 15. Эти дома были построены в девяностые годы девятнадцатого века.
Nouns from verbs
The typical suffixes forming nouns from verbs
The nouns in the list below do not follow the above patterns:
advise — advice choose — choice
behave — behaviour complain — complaint
believe —belief (beliefs) die —death
fly —flight practise — practice
grow —growth prove —proof (proofs)
hate — hatred serve — service
know — knowledge speak — speech
live — life (lives) think — thought
lose — loss weigh — weight
Ex. 1. Go over the list of nouns derived from verbs and group them according to the suffixes used.
admit — admission improve — improvement
advertise — advertisement inhabit — inhabitant
announce — announcement insist — insistence
apologize — apology interrupt — interruption
apply — application introduce — introduction
appoint — appointment invade — invasion
approve — approval invent — invention
arrange — arrangement marry — marriage
attend — attendance mix — mixture
attract — attraction operate — operation.
celebrate — celebration pass —passage
combine — combination perform — performance
confess — confession permit — permission
continue — continuation possess — possession
depart — departure prefer — preference
describe — description prepare — preparation
develop — development produce — production
dictate — dictation propose — proposal
disappoint — disappointment protect — protection
discover — discovery punish — punishment
divide — division qualify — qualification
educate — education receive — reception
elect — election recognize — recognition
employ — employment refer — reference
enter — entrance refuse — refusal
entertain — entertainment repeat — repetition
excite — excitement revise — revision
exist — existence satisfy — satisfaction
explain — explanation solve — solution
hesitate — hesitation suggest — suggestion
imagine — imagination translate — translation
imitate — imitation treat — treatment
impress — impression
Nouns from Adjectives
The typical suffixes forming nouns from adjectives
The nouns in the list below do not follow the above patterns:
deep — depth long — length young — youth
free — freedom poor — poverty warm — warmth
high — height proud — pride wide — width
hot — heat strong — strength wise — wisdom
beautiful — beauty popular — popularity
certain — certainty possible — possibility
confident — confidence present — presence
convenient — convenience quiet — quietness
cruel — cruelty real — reality
curious — curiosity sad — sadness
dark — darkness safe — safety
elegant — elegance shy — shyness
equal — equality sick — sickness
fluent — fluency similar — similarity
foolish — foolishness stupid — stupidity
frequent — frequency tidy — tidiness
generous — generosity tired — tiredness
happy — happiness ugly — ugliness
ill — illness violent — violence
independent — independence weak — weakness
patient — patience wicked — wickedness
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using nouns formed front the adjectives in brackets.
1.... is one of the world's great problems. (poor) 2. I think it shows ... of character to admit you are wrong. (strong) 3. Summer came and the ... became quite oppressive. (hot) 4. I was told that you have a ... for a computer operator. (vacant) 5. The ... of the road is not great enough to take large trucks. (wide) 6. ... is the mother of invention. (necessary) 7. ... on the screen is one of the most topical issues. (violent) 8. If you want to find a good job you should gain more ... . (confident) 9.The ... of the water in this lake is more than twelve metres. (deep) 10. He is famous for his .... He gives large sums of money to charity. (generous) 11. I am sure that his ... was caused by overwork. (ill) 12. After staying in England for a couple of months he spoke English with greater ... . (fluent) 13. Please have a little ... . We'll have to wait for another hour. (patient) 14. The ... of this bus service is about one every ten minutes. (frequent)
Adjectives from Nouns and Verbs. Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives
The typical suffixes forming adjectives from nouns and verbs and those forming verbs from nouns and adjectives
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых специальностей Витебск уо «вгу им. П. М. Машерова»
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых специальностей Витебск Издательство уо "вгу им. П. М. Машерова"
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов юридических специальностей Павлодар 2008 удк ббк ж
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов всех специальностей Павлодар
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов всех специальностей Ялта 2009 ббк удк социология: Учебно-методическое пособие для изучения курса. Для студентов всех специальностей /
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов естественных специальностей Павлодар (075. 8) Ббк 20. 1я7 Б81
Учебно-методическое пособие Санкт-Петербург 2007 ббк г
Учебно-методическое пособие по специальности 1-08 01 01 «Профессиональное обучение
Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов экономических специальностей I ii курсов заочного отделения
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неисторических специальностей Казань 2012 (47)
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов, обучающихся по специальности 1-08 01 01 «Профессиональное обучение»
Учебно-методическое пособие по педагогической (методической) практике для студентов IV и V курсов, обучающихся по направлению 050100. 62 «Педагогическое образование»