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  • Fill in the names of areas of law practice in which lawyers specialize:

Deals with rules and regulations and orders and decisions created by administrative agencies of government

Focuses on rules and regulations of banking activity and financial transactions

Includes rules of business termination and company liquidation

Focuses on the regulation of scientific technology involving the production or use of electronic devices and computers

Relates to the protection of rights provided by constitution

Deals with the regulation of sales, trade and commercial transactions

Relates to rules and regulations of contractual relations setting the rights and obligations of the parties

Includes classifications of crimes, responsibility for criminal offence, trial process and court procedures of setting punishment for criminal act

Deals with the rules that guard certain family relations and regulations of adoption, support and divorce

Focuses on protection of rights of inventors, creators and authors

Is a group of laws, rules, or principles that are based on custom, treaties, or legislation and that control or affect the duties and rights of sovereign nations in relation to each other

Concerns rules and statutes providing control over Internet communication

Ensures and regulates fair competition, ensures protection from monopolization

Deals with the legal methods of company formation, company running and financial affairs

Involves statutes and rules of nature protection

Concerns rules and regulations of insurance activity

Sets control of working conditions, deals with rules and regulations of labour and employment relations

Concerns tax matters and tax responsibilities

Sets and ensures rules of property transactions (selling and buying of land and buildings)

Includes legal issues concerning responsibility for the quality of products and protection from defective goods

Product Liability Laws, Administrative Law, Intellectual Property Law, Real Property Law, Banking & Finance Law, International Law, Bankruptcy Law, Tax Law & Taxation, Family Law, Internet Law, Computer & Technology Law, Employment Law, Constitutional Law, Insurance Law, Commercial Law, Environmental Law, Corporate law, Antitrust Law, Criminal Law, Contract Law

  • Fill in the proper words (listed below);

In the past 10 years, an ____________ approach to teaching business law has been gaining _____________ in law schools across North America – clinical education for ___________ business lawyers.

Clinic students take ______________ for all aspects of representing their clients including ________________ meetings, _____________ legal documents, _______________ on the phone, _____________ files, and keeping clients _______________ of their work and progress.

In many cases, clients find the law to be an ________________ to what they want to do.

The learning process begins with an _______________ client interview.

Most clinical programs are _____________ on the idea that business lawyers must not only __________________ the legal knowledge and analysis necessary for competent _______________ but they must also understand the needs of their clients.

The initial client interview can be a real ______________ for the students in this regard.

Because their legal education has ___________ on the ____________ of law, the students have to be _________________ to start their relationship with the client by learning a great _____________ of _______________ information about the business, such as what it does, how it _____________ money, and what its short – and long-term __________ are.

Regardless of whether they are __________ for their time, most business clinics ____________ their students to maintain timesheets and ____________ bills.

The experience in the clinic pays _____________ for the students when they ______________ the profession.
Responsibility, consulting, obstacle, master, enter, dividends, submit, goals, performance, momentum, innovative, eye-opener, nonlegal, re-educated, makes, deal, require, billing, abreast, drafting, scheduling, premised, primacy, focused, initial, maintaining, aspiring

  • Translate into English:




Специалист в области права

Область права

Согласно закону

Совокупность правовых норм

Соответствующий закону

Санкционированный законом

Юридическое лицо

Физическое лицо

Законодательная деятельность

Издавать законы (осуществлять законодательную власть)

Законодательный орган

Противоправное деяние

Правомерное действие

Норма права


Процессуальная норма

Судебное решение

Англосаксонское право

Гражданское (Римское ) право

Судебное дело

Судебное решение

Судебное разбирательство

Рассматривать дело



Нарушение условий договора

  • True or False (T), (F):

Common Law is the law inspired by old Roman Law

The primary feature of Common Law is that laws are written into collection

Criminal Law is the body of laws setting limits to social conduct

The principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow

Crime is a criminal wrong against society

Civil Procedure sets rules of compensation for damages

Parliament executes law

Roman Law is a case law

Jus Civile is the law in which certain judicial decisions may become law according to which judges must decide later cases

Common Law is referred to as “unwritten” law

  • Give the names of the processes:

The process of resolving a dispute outside of the court system by presenting it to an arbitrator

An attempt to bring about a peaceful settlement or compromise between parties through the objective intervention of a neutral party

A legal proceeding in a court, a judicial contest to determine and enforce legal rights

The steps taken and methods used in bringing and conducting a civil action

The steps taken and methods used in bringing and conducting a criminal action

Civil Procedure, Arbitration, Criminal Procedure, Litigation, Mediation

  • The USA or the UK:

Studying law means a three-year undergraduate degree program which results in an LLB

Lawyers are divided into solicitors and barristers

It takes 7 years to become a lawyer

Applicants to a law school must have the General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Level

There is no special admission test to law schools

To enter a law school you must have high undergraduate grades and score high on the Law School Admission Test

The eight leading law schools have designed the new National Admissions Test for Law (LNat)

Most jurisdictions require applicants to pass a separate written Ethics Examination

It takes a one year LLM course to specialize in a certain law area

  • True or False (T orF):

Criminal law is the body of laws setting limits to social conduct

Tort law regulates relationships amongst persons and organizations setting rules and principles that apply to private relations

Civil Procedure sets rules of compensation for wrong against society

Administrative law sets the rules of punishment for crimes

Common law is the law inspired by old Roman law

Common law is referred to as “unwritten” law

Civil law exists and applies to a group on the basis of historical legal precedents

  • Answer the questions:

What is Common Law based on?

What are Common Law countries?

Law is unwritten in Common Law countries, is it?

Are there any codes with rules and regulations in Russia?

Is there any constitution in the UK?

Are there any Acts of Parliament in Great Britain?

Is there the Constitution in the USA?

In which countries case is the main source of law?

What law is judge-made law?

What is the name of legal code of ancient Rome?

What Law sets rules of punishment for crimes?

The principle of which Law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow?

What is a civil wrong against a person or person's property, meaning both individuals and legal entities?

  • Fill in proper words from the list below:

The franchisee must not _____________ the product on the market without franchisor’s ______________.

A franchise organization is such a system of ________________ goods when one company ________________ its certain rights to another company.

The authorised administrative bodies provide __________________ binding for each franchise.

The franchisee must not _______________ to anybody the _______________ of the franchisor even after the termination of the _________________.

The franchisee pays ____________ and ________________ to the owners.

Franchisor’s obligation is to guarantee _______________ services to all franchisors and to avoid ______________ of franchisees on the territory.

The fee gives the franchisee the right to open and ______________ a business using the ___________________ business ideas.

A franchisee must follow the ___________________ laid down by the franchisor and supply him with operating ___________.

Despite periodic disputes, franchisors and franchisees have to continue ____________________ most of the time.

The company who owns a business grants to the franchisees the ability ________________ the products or services, which are ___________________ with the franchisor’s __________________.
Marketing, grants, a fee, royalties, operate, franchisor’s, to distribute, associated, trademark, to live together, disclose, know-how, agreement, accounting system, data, advertise, approval, equal, competition, legislation

  • True or False (T) (F):

Franchise organisation is not regulated by laws mainly expressed in statutes

In the USA franchising is regulated by the FTC

The FTC Franchise Rule applies not everywhere in the USA

In the European Union the control is executed by the European Franchise Federation

The European Code of Ethics for Franchising is binding in all member states

In the UK the applicable law is the British Franchise Association Code of Ethical Conduct

In Russia Law of commercial concession is the legislative basis of franchise business

  • Answer the questions:

  1. When is a franchise established?

  2. Does the term franchise refer to both the agreement between the parties and the franchise outlet?

  3. What are the basic forms of franchisees?

  4. Why does a franchisor make specific presale disclosures to prospective franchisees?

  5. What happens if a franchisor violates FTC disclosure rules?

  6. Who may be sued for trademark infringement?

  7. What do trade secrets include?

  8. What can result in loss of the franchise?

  9. Is a single failure to meet a quality control standard a cause for termination of a franchise agreement?

  10. When can the franchisee sue the franchisor for wrongful termination?

  • Give English equivalents:

Климат для международных инвестиций – весьма благоприятный

Сообщество предпринимателей

Некоммерческая международная организация

Требовать прекращения договора

Разумное количество времени, чтобы улучшить ситуацию

Письменное уведомление о предполагаемом прекращении договора

Быть уличенным в преступлении, имеющим отношение к деятельности в области франчайзинга

Неспособность оценить риски

Роковая (серьезная) ошибка

Деловые непрофессиональные решения

Профессиональные решения

Брать на себя риск…

Обязательный документ

Представить необходимую документацию

Обязательство, возложенное на …

Регулироваться соответствующим законодательством

Обеспечивать и поддерживать добросовестную конкуренцию

Обеспечивать контроль

Рекламировать продукт на рынке

Обеспечивать оперативной информацией

Содержать имущественный комплекс в порядке

Потенциальный франчайзи

Иметь представление (знать) о взаимных правах и обязанностях

Узаконенная (официальная) форма договора

Новичок в деле франчайзинга

Освоить новые прибыльные рынки

Вести переговоры от лица франчайзера

Существенные условия договора франчайзинга

Основания для прекращения договора

Информация, имеющая отношение к делу

Прогноз доходов

Полагаться на к-л. цифры (расчеты)

Предполагаемые данные

Не торопитесь с принятием решения

Противоречить закону

Ущерб, вызванный нарушением правил

Получить общественное признание качества товаров

Суть успеха

Предусматривать регистрацию…

Запрещать неправомерное использование торговых марок

Недобросовестная конкуренция

Договор, заключенный в устной форме

Неправомерное обогащение

Невозможность соответствовать стандартам качества

Разногласия, возникающие по договору

Особые условия, имеющие отношение к защите прав сторон по договору

Разовое нарушение требований о стандарте качества

Договор, имеющий исковую силу

Нести ответственность за халатность

Наложить ответственность на…

  • A Partnership or a Company (P) or (C):

No property liability. The participants bear only the risk of losses in the amount of the contributions to the …

It is sufficient for the participants to take part in business activities by capital participation.

There is no norm for the Charter capital.

The participants are only legal entities and individual entrepreneurs.

May be founded by one individual or legal entity only.

The minimum amount of the Charter capital is established by law.

Full property liability.

The participants must directly (personally) take part in the business activity.

Association of capital.

Association of persons.

  • True or False (General Partnership – Russia) – (T) or (F):

The seizure of the partner's share in the joint capital of the partnership by the participant's own debts is admissible only if his own property proves to be sufficient to cover debts

A general partnership is established by the agreement between two or more individual legal entities

Partners in a general partnership may transfer their shares in the partnership without the consent of other partners

Management decisions are taken with the unanimous consent of the partners

Each participant has an absolute right to leave the partnership at any time, provided that he gives notice of not less than three months to the other partners

The participant of the general partnership has the right to transfer his share in the joint capital to another participant of the partnership or to the third party

A general partnership must not enter into contracts in the name of one of its partners

Each partner has one vote

The partnership's profits and losses are distributed among the partners in proportion to their contribution to the capital

A person may participate in more than one general partnership

  • Answer the questions (General Partnership – the USA):

  1. Do the remaining partners have the right to continue a partnership after dissolution?

  2. Is the outgoing partner liable for any new debts and obligations incurred by the partnership after the dissolution?

  3. In which order are debts satisfied to satisfy claims against the partnership?

  4. What is the difference between “partnership at will” and “partnership for a term”?

  5. To what extent is a new partner who is admitted to a partnership liable for the existing debts and obligations of the partnership?

  6. Have all the states adopted the UPA?

  7. Can the name of a partnership contain the term “Incorporated”?

  8. What kind of liability does a partner have when he or she injure third parties (breach of trust, fraud, etc.)?

  9. What is an “action for an accounting”?

  10. Why do partners owe each other a duty of loyalty?

  • Fill in the proper word:

A limited partnership is an independent legal entity formed by _______________ between two or more individuals or legal _______________ to engage in joint economic _______________. A general partner in a limited partnership may be a partner with full _________________ in only _______________ partnership at any given time. The limited partnership must be _________________ in case all the limited partners have withdrawn ________________ it. A partner's individual nonpartnership property cannot be _______________ until the partnership runs out of _____________. The capital _________________ of all partners are considered to be the ________________ of the partnership. All partners have equal ______________ in the management of partnership _______________. Limited partners are nonparticipating ________________. Limited partners receive a ________________ on their investment while risking only the original ________________. A limited partner may ________________ his share to the third party subject to the priority right of the other limited partners ________________ such share. Limited partners are generally liable up to the _________________ of their respective _________________ contributions.



















To purchase


  • Answer the questions (Limited Partnership – the USA):

  1. How many persons must execute and sign a certificate of limited partnership?

  2. The limited partnership is formed when the certificate of limited partnership is filed, isn't it?

  3. May the capital contribution of a limited partnership be in promissory notes?

  4. What does a limited partnership agreement set forth?

  5. Is a limited partner liable for losses beyond his capital contribution?

  6. When is a partnership a “domestic limited partnership”?

  7. May the creditor require a limited partner to guarantee the repayment of the loan in order to extend credit to the limited partnership?

  8. Is a limited partnership dissolved upon the withdrawal of a general partner?

  9. Must a limited partnership wind up its affairs upon dissolution?

  10. What kind of order of distribution of partnership assets does the RULPA provide upon the winding up of a limited partnership?

  • Translate into English:

Закрытое акционерное общество

Открытое акционерное общество

Уставный капитал

Правила внутреннего распорядка

Разрешение на создание акционерного общества

Привилегированные акции

Обыкновенные акции


Цессия прав по обязательству

Завеса корпоративности

Проникнуть за завесу корпоративности




Некоммерческая корпорация

Фирма в индивидуальной собственности

Пакет акций



Заемный капитал

Капитал в форме акций

  • Translate into Russian:

To generate the country's business receipts

Medieval Europe

Approval of the legislature

Organized sale of securities

Perpetual existence

Board of directors

Provisions of the act

Termination of corporations

To adopt an act

Federal securities laws

Charitable purposes

Publicly held corporation

Closely held corporation

To be liable for the torts

To impose liability

For the sake of convenience

Favourable laws

To conduct intrastate commerce

To secure a debt

Unavailable for use

To approve an amendment

To raise a defence

On behalf of the corporation

Alternative means

Consistent with law

Internal management structure of the corporation

The records of the corporation

To empower corporate officers to enter into contracts

Equal voting rights

  • Translate into English:

Продажа товаров розничными магазинами

Валовой внутренний продукт

Рентабельные рынки

Единые цены

Розничный торговец

Бухгалтерский баланс

Декларация о доходах

Существенный пункт спора

Существенное нарушение контракта

Основания для аннулирования договора франчайзинга

Относящаяся к делу информация

Прогнозы, основанные на фактических данных

Предупредительная инструкция

Полагаться на цифры

Объемы продаж, основанные на предполагаемых данных

Нарушитель подвергается штрафу, налагаемому в гражданском порядке

Суть успеха

Предусматривать регистрацию знаков обслуживания в Федеральном Комитете по Патентам и Торговым Маркам

Быть осужденным за нарушение патента

Обладатель торговой марки

Судебное предписание, запрещающее дальнейшее незаконное использование торговой марки

Раскрыть торговые секреты

Незаконное присвоение торгового секрета называется недобросовестная конкуренция

Заключить договор франчайзинга

Договор франчайзинга, заключенный в устной форме

Предотвратить незаконное обогащение

Статут о мошенничестве

Самое важное достояние франчайзера – его имя и репутация

Фирма имеет задолженность в 2 миллиона долларов

Погасить долг

Недвижимость франчайзи

Большинство договоров коммерческой концессии содержат арбитражную оговорку, которая имеет исковую силу

Международный спор

Срок действия договора франчайзинга

Выплаты, оговоренные в договоре франчайзинга

Единовременная выплата

Платить гонорар

Оптовая продажа франчайзи

Оценка стоимости имущества

Ежегодные отчисления

Плата за аренду

Твердая сумма гонорара

Статья о досрочной отмене контракта

Восстановить (виндицировать) право на франчайзинг

Иск о расторжении договора

  • Answer the questions:

What was franchising originally pioneered by?

Are the franchisor and the franchisee established as separate corporations? Give the examples.

Is it an advantage to franchising that consumers are assured of uniform product quality?

How many basic forms of franchises do you know? What are they?

What franchise is used when a franchisor wants to enter a market in another country?

If Nescafe wanted to enter the country of China to operate its coffee shops, could it grant an area franchise to a Chinese company, which would then choose the individual franchisees in that country?

What disclosure document did state franchise administrators develop?

What does information that must be disclosed include?

Does the Federal Trade Commission require the registration of the disclosure document prior to its use?

What happens if a franchisor violates FTC disclosure rules?

What act provides for registration of trademarks and service marks with the federal Patent and Trademark Office?

Hat may anyone who uses a mark without authorization be sued for?

What do trade secrets include?

What does a Statute of Frauds require?

What topics do franchise agreements cover?

Are franchise fees payable by the franchisee stipulated in the franchise agreement?

What kind of fees do you know?

When do franchise agreements permit a franchisor to terminate the franchise “for cause”?

Is a single failure to meet a quality control standard a cause for termination?

What happens if the franchise agreement is breached?

Antitrust Laws

Why did Congress enact a comprehensive system of antitrust laws?

What Act (and when) made certain restraints of trade and monopolistic acts illegal?

What act prohibits price discrimination?

Do federal antitrust laws provide for both government and private lawsuits?

What act is the only major antitrust act with criminal sanctions?

Under what act is intent the prerequisite for criminal liability?

What civil remedies do the courts order?

Which act permits any person who suffers antitrust injury in his or her business property to bring a private single action against the offenders?

May treble damages be recovered for violations of the FTC Act?

How many years has a private plaintiff to bring a private civil treble damage action?

Who and when opts a plea of nolo contendere and a consent decree?

May the government obtain an injunction under the FTC Act?

What act has been called the “Magna Carta of free enterprise”?

Which act outlaws contracts, combinations, and conspiracies in restraint of trade?

What tests has the US Supreme Court developed for determining the lawfulness of a restraint?

Which rule holds that only unreasonable restraints of trade violate Section 1 of the Sherman Act?

Which rule applies to restraints that are inherently anticompetitive?

Do horizontal restraints fall under per se rule?

When does horizontal price-fixing occur?

Define price-fixing

Who bears the burden of proving a price-fixing agreement?

What kind of violation is price-fixing?

What kind of competitors are engaging in a division of markets?

What do horizontal market-sharing arrangements include?

When does refusal to deal occur?

According to recent Supreme Court decisions are all group boycotts per se illegal?

Are nonprice restraints unlawful if their anticompetitive effects outweigh their procompetitive effects?


What often determines whether the defendant has monopoly power?

What does relevant product or service market generally include?

By what means do defendants try to make their market share seem small?

Who usually argues for a narrow definition of the market?

Give the definition to the relevant geographical market

How is monopoly power defined by the courts?

Does Section 2 of the Sherman Act outlaw monopolies?

How is predatory pricing defined?

What is the difference between Section 1 and Section 2 of the Sherman Act?


Which act gave the federal government the power to prevent anticompetitive merges?

Is an actual showing of the lessening of competition required according to Section 7 of the Clayton act?

Why do not vertical merges create an increase in market share?

What are two primary defences to Section 7 actions (even if the merger would violate Section 7)?

Which rules were enacted pursuant to the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvement Act?

Which section of the Clayton Act prohibits tying arrangements involving sales and leases of goods?

Which section of the Clayton Act prohibits tying arrangements involving goods, services, intangible property, and real property?

May a tying arrangement be lawful?

Separate, wiped out, freedom, authorities, gains, net, salaries and bonuses, illegal ways, self-assessing, written collection, relieves, amount, net worth, related, filing, crime, reduction, expenses, income, personal, gross, progressive, taxable, calculated, dividends

  1. Tax ___________________________ operate under the legislation that provides rules and regulations presented in the _____________________________ of such rules and regulations _____________________ to taxation.

  2. Some categories of population are given ____________________ from payment of taxes allowed by law; some may make a ____________________ in the _________________ amount on which the tax is ____________________.

  3. But it is illegal to resort to _____________________________ of paying less or more taxes, which is considered to be a serious ___________________.

  4. Sole proprietors pay taxes on business ___________________ on their personal tax returns.

  5. Corporation is a legal entity __________________ from its owners and pays income tax on _______________ profits, the shareholder’s ___________________ are taxed as part of their __________________ profit.

  6. _____________________ income is the net ___________________ of income that is left of a taxpayer’s gross income after the deduction of the __________________.

  7. The income tax is called a ____________________ tax because it takes a larger percentage of the income from high _____________________ individuals.

  8. ______________________________ are deductible business expenses, so the corporation deducts those costs and does not pay taxes on them.

  9. Like individuals, companies are now responsible for completing and ________________ their own tax returns, together with _____________________ their corporation tax liabilities.

  10. There are certain ____________________ available so that the __________________ and therefore the tax can be reduced or the payment postponed, or in some cases totally ______________________.

    • What are the most common tax crimes?

Intellectual Property

  • Answer the questions:

  1. Is an invention the inventor’s property?

  2. How is it possible to prove the ownership?

  3. What do these symbols mean – ©, ®, ™?

  4. Can you give the definitions of a patent, copyright and trademark?

  5. Does computers software refer to intellectual property?

  6. Can anyone copy anything from the Internet?

  7. Can you register your personal website under any name?

  8. Why should intellectual property be protected by law?

  • Correct the mistakes if necessary:

  1. Intellectual property does not refer to the creations of the mind.

  2. Intellectual property laws are applicable both to natural persons and legal entities.

  3. Intellectual property is intangible.

  4. A patent is granted to the inventor for an uncertain period of time.

  5. A trademark is used to identify the origin of a product and to distinguish a manufacturer’s products from others.

  6. A copyright is not the exclusive right to exhibit written material.

  7. A trade secret must not be protected from disclosure.

  8. A domain name is an address of a computer network connection identifying the owner of the address.

  • Finish the statements:

  1. Intellectual property refers to…

  2. The four types of intellectual property are…

  3. Internet IP laws protect…

  • What definition of intellectual property type do the following words and phrases refer to:

    • Exclusive right

    • Protect from disclosure

    • Logo

    • String of letters

    • Inventor

    • Distinctive word

    • Identify

    • Distinguish…from

    • Reproduce new and useful product

  • Imagine you work for a law firm. You were assigned to prepare the answers that would appear on the Internet site. Answer these questions in plain English so that a lay person can easily understand them:

  1. Why do I need to patent my invention?

  2. How long does a patent last?

  3. Where do I register patents and trademarks?

  4. Can my application for a patent be rejected? If yes, on what grounds?

  5. How should I choose a trademark?

  6. What privilege does a registered trademark give?

  7. We use very specific packaging for our products. Can it be protected?

  8. What is copyrightable?

  9. I have got a brilliant idea and I want to copyright it. How can I do it?

  10. We want to copy some manuals for our training course classes. Should we refer to the author or publishing house for permission?

  11. What exactly refers to the trade secret category?

  12. I am starting a business. How can I protect my business confidential information?

  • Develop legal advice completing the following sentences (If-clause 1):
    e.g. If your invention is novel, useful and non-obvious you can obtain a patent (it can be patented).

  1. If you have created a work of art you…

  2. If you want your product to be distinguished from the others…

  3. If you do not want everybody to be aware of the secrets of your business…

  4. If toy are developing your own website…

Trademark Registration

  • Answer the questions:

  1. How is it possible to create a distinctive trademark?

  2. Why is it necessary to make a search of existing trademarks?

  3. What is a description of goods or services?

  4. Does the depiction mean a graphic image of a mark?

  5. How can I apply a form?

  • Make up the following assumptions (conditionals – type 2):

  1. If creative work were not encouraged…

  2. If technological innovations were not promoted…

  3. If progressive ideas were not exchanged…

  4. If fair competition were not ensured…

  5. If IP owners’ rights were not protected…

  • Write about the responsibilities of government bodies and organisations in pursuing IP protection policy.

  • Plaintiff, defendant or court (P, D, C)?

Impose a judgement


File a lawsuit

Grant relief

Be sued

Deny motion/damages

Award relief

Motion for summary judgement

Prove (fair use)

Allege wrongful act

Grant motion for injunction

Seek relief

Allegedly infringe

Grant motion for summary judgement

Award damages

Cause the likelihood of confusion

Seek punishment

Claim damages

Motion for injunction

  • Match the two parts of the sentences below to make useful notes (conditionals – type 0 and type1):

If a firm makes and sells another firm’s patented product without the patent owner’s permission

Its IP rights will be nevertheless protected by law

If a substantial part of the original is reproduced

The firm will be sued by the rights owner

If a firm operates under another firm’s registered trademark using it entirely or partially

No relief is awarded by the court

If company’s secret information is disclosed by one of the employees

It is the case of copyright infringement

If the loss from IP infringement is severe

The tort of patent infringement exists

If the alleged infringer proves fair use of the reproduced material

The plaintiff may ask the court for an injunction

If the firm failed to register the trademark or copyright

The company will sue him for trade secret misappropriation

  • Answer the questions:

  1. What wrongs constitute the IP infringement?

  2. What are civil IP wrongs and what are IP crimes?

  3. Why is it necessary to enforce law in order to prosecute IP crimes?

  4. How is it possible to prove IP rights criminal infringements, of a trademark for example?

  5. What penalties are imposed for IP crime?

  6. What are cyberspace crimes?

Products Liability

  • Give the answers to the following questions:

  1. What is products liability and what are its basic principles?

  2. Who must exercise the duty of care?

  3. What is an unreasonably dangerous product? Potentially dangerous product?

  4. What is negligence?

  5. What are the theories in a products liability case?

  6. When does an injured person have a right to recover damages?

  7. What is a class action?

  8. How can a manufacturer reduce the liability?

  • Match the two halves of each sentence:

In case the automobile producer discovers a flaw in the cars they manufacture

He, alongside with the producer and seller, would be held liable for any harmful effect on the user’s health

If only a distributor of pharmaceuticals failed to carefully check up the certification of the medicine he supplies

The court will impose on him compensatory damages for both negligence and breach of warranty

In the event of indigestion caused by defective food purchased by the customers in a supermarket

You will recover not only compensatory but punitive damages

Provided you can prove that the drug (medicine) you were taking caused bad side effects and on condition you show the container lacking the proper warning

He must recall them from the market in order to avoid accidents and lawsuits

Unless the producer shows the detailed and illustrated instruction for handling the dangerous device

A class action suit can be started against the management

  • Fill in the proper words:

Products liability is the area of ______________ that deals with a manufacturer’s or seller’s _______________ for _______________ suffered by a __________________ or user as a result of a defective _______________.

Products may _____________ from low-tech to high-tech, but in any case the person who ________________ a product into ___________ of commerce owes a duty of ______________, not only to the person who first purchases the product, but also to anyone else who might foreseeable come __________________ with it.

The products liability _______________ is the consumer’s most effective weapon against unreasonably ________________ products.

There are three theories of __________________ in a product liability case:

  1. ______________________

  2. ______________________

  3. ______________________

An injured person, _____________, bringing the ______________ under any of these theories will point out that the legal ________________ have been violated and thus he has the right to ___________________.

However, defendants may try to __________ that it was the plaintiff’s _______________ who has failed to ____________ the product carefully or just misused it.

Contract Drafting Outline

  • Answer the following questions and give your reasons:

When you have to enter into a contract:

  1. do you read attentively every clause, make remarks and clarify each point?

  2. do you scan it to find the stipulations that you care about most?

  3. do you estimate as a professional to find some inconformity with legal rules?

  4. do you try to detect hidden pitfalls?

  5. do you just look through and sign?

  6. do you start hot discussion on the clauses because you love to argue and reason?

  7. Do you think contracts should be written in plain language so that everybody can get the point or should be comprehended only by legal professionals?

  • Look through the following list of agreement titles. Select those that refer to business activities of corporate clients.

  1. Employment Agreement

  2. Confidentiality Agreement

  3. Custody Agreement

  4. Merger Agreement

  5. Shareholders Agreement

  6. Agency Agreement

  7. Purchasing Agreement

  8. Sales Representative Agreement

  9. Partnership Agreement

  10. Services Agreement

  11. Joint Venture Agreement

  12. Retainer Agreement

  13. Construction Agreement

  14. Assignment Agreement

  15. Copyright License Agreement

  16. Assignment of Copyright

  17. Agreement to Sell Business

  18. Franchise Agreement

  19. Prenuptial Agreement

  20. Distribution Agreement

  21. Trust Agreement

  22. Lease Agreement

  23. Sale Contract

  24. Loan Agreement

  25. Subcontractor Agreement



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