2. Лексический и разговорный материал.
Words and expressions
Madagascar is an island of the continent of Africa. It is the fourth largest island in the world. It is in the Indian Ocean. Madagascar is formed by one large island and several small islands. The country's total area is 226,658 square miles. It is about the size of Texas. The central part of this large island is made of a mountainous plateau. Madagascar is partly volcanic in origin. The land slopes steeply to a small or narrow lowland bordering the Indian Ocean in the east. There is a somewhat wider coastal plain next to the Mozambique Channel in the west. The best soil in the country is found along the coast, and in river valley's of the central plateau. The major rivers of Madagascar are Betsiboka, Mangoky and Onilahy. All rivers start on the east side of the country, and flow west towards the Mozambique Channel. The largest lake is near Toamasina. It is called Alaotra.
The eastern part of Madagascar gets a lot of rain, which is brought on shore by winds coming from the southeasterly direction. Most of the rain falls between November and April. Coastal regions remain at a warm or hot temperature throughout the year. The central plateau has a climate of warm summers and cool winters. Tropical rain forests are also in Madagascar. The Savanna woodlands and grasslands grow in the drier western regions. Desert vegetation occurs in the extreme southwest. Animal life is uncommon in Madagascar. Lemur is an animal that is found almost always in Madagascar. All the animals that are in Madagascar share characteristics with animals in Africa.
The minerals in Madagascar are like the ones in United States of America. They have coal and nickel. Other important mineral resources include bauxite, chromium, graphite, iron ore, petroleum and copper deposits, as well as small amounts of salt, garnets, and mica.
The two official languages of Madagascar are the Merina dialect of Malagasy, a language of Malayo-Indonesian origin, and the other is French. Approximately 41 percent of the religion in Madagascar is Christian. Fifty-two percent follows traditional beliefs and 7 percent is Muslim.
In 1975, Madagascar's government said, under the constitution, that the country was ruled by a president who was elected for seven years. They have a twenty-two member Supreme Revolutionary Council, which is appointed by the president. They also have a Council of Ministers that is led by the Prime Minister. They have another council which is called the People's National Assembly. It is a 137 member assembly, elected by the people. The members serve a five year term. Madagascar's Judicial system is based upon that of France. It includes a supreme court, located in Antananarivo, a court of appeal, eleven courts of first instance, and special economic and criminal tribunals. Madagascar's military has 21,000 members. Madagascar is a member of the United Nations. It also is a part of the Organization of African Unity, and several other organizations.
Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. The country remains, like in colonial times, mostly agricultural. Eighty percent of the country's labor force is engaged in agricultural activities.
Of course Madagascar has its own money. The money in Madagascar is called Malagasy franc. One dollar in US currency is equal to 1846.87 Malagasy francs.
The first European to sight the island was Diego Dias. Dias was from Portugal. He found the island in the 1500s. During the 17th century, the Portuguese, the English, and the French successively and unsuccessfully tried to colonize Madagascar. The French got a temporary hold on the island in 1642. They were driven out in 1674. They finally acquired trading places along the east coast in the following century. From 1810 to 1828, during the reign of the Merina king, Radama I, who didn't like the French, he allowed the English to come and live there. British officers trained Merina troops, and British missionaries introduced Christianity. After the death of Radama I, a strong reaction towards European culture developed. Reforms were abolished, the missionaries were persecuted, and trade relations with Great Britain were severed. Radama II reigned from 1861 to 1863. He was generally a progressive ruler. He got along with the French. Radama II was killed because of this fact. There was a period when they're arguing with the French. After that period, Queen Ranavalona III took over ruling Madagascar, in 1895. In 1896, because of popular uprisings, Madagascar was proclaimed a colony of France. Then military rule was instituted, and the Queen was sent out of the country and was not allowed to return. Now Madagascar has its own government, and is progressing well. They have a system similar to the United States. The official name for Madagascar is Democratic Republic of Madagascar.
Closed for foreign visitors during the Soviet time, Sevastopol is today being visited annually by about 1 million tourists from all over the world and is always welcoming new guests.
Sevastopol, one of the most famous cities in the world, was founded in 1783 as a military base and a fortress on the southern boundary of Russia. It became an intersection of interests between the Christian and Muslim world, namely Europe and Asia. Having been closed during the Soviet period, Sevastopol was reopened in 1993 for international passenger and freight service.
Sevastopol Port is located on the southwestern part of the Crimean peninsula on the Black Sea coast. Sevastopol is geographically advantageous as it is located in a unique non-frozen bay (closed from storms and winds), surrounded by 12 countries within a 600 km radius-just a short distance to Istanbul.
The marine passenger terminal is located in the center of Sevastopol. Equipped with two moorings at 135 meters and 200 meters, the terminal has the capacity to accommodate passenger cruises with a draught of 4 and 8 meters, respectively.
The convenient location of the port, a well-developed highway system, experienced tour companies and environmental diversity (sea, mountains, forests, and rich historical heritage) help us to work effectively with cruises and guarantee great, comprehensive tours of Crimea.
Great historical heritage, beautiful bays and hospitable people continue to attract tourists and commerce to Sevastopol from all parts of the world. The history of Sevastopol is closely connected with the history of many European countries: Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Italy, Turkey, France and others. Sevastopol's rich history is represented by over two thousand monuments, which can be found throughout the city.
8.Выпишите из текста “Madagascar” прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Преобразуйте их в прилагательные в положительной степени.
Севастополь всегда рад новым гостям; военная база и крепость; пересечение интересов христиан и мусульман; Севастополь был открыт снова; в юго-западной части крымского полуострова; географически выгодный; уникальная незамерзающая бухта; возможность разместить пассажирские круизные лайнеры; удобное расположение порта; опытные туристические компании; разнообразие окружающей среды; богатое историческое наследие; всесторонние туры по Крыму; гостеприимные люди; привлекать туристов и коммерсантов; история Севастополя тесно связана с историей многих европейских стран
а) о порте Севастополя;
2. Лексический и разговорный материал. Madagascar Words and expressions
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Путешествие по Лондону
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