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Задание для студентов заочной формы обучения: ИПФ 1 курс, 1 семестр (машиностроение).

I. Reading materials.

Text A. Properties of Metals

1. Read the text and translate it into Russian in written form.

Metals, group of chemical elements that exhibit all or most of the following physical qualities: they are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque, except in extremely thin films; good electrical and thermal conductors; lustrous when polished; and have a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line of elements. Elements to the left of this diagonal are metals, and elements to the right are nonmetals. Elements that make up this diagonal—boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine—have both metallic and nonmetallic properties. The common metallic elements include the following: aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, potassium, radium, rhodium, silver, sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements, either as compounds, as solutions, or as intimate mixtures. A substance composed of two or more metals, or a substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals such as carbon are called alloys. Alloys of mercury with other metallic elements are known as amalgams.

Within the general limits of the definition of a metal, the properties of metals vary widely. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is red, and gold is yellow. Some metals display more than one colour, a phenomenon called pleochroism. The melting points of metals range from about -39° C (about -38° F) for mercury to 3410° C (6170° F) for tungsten. Osmium and iridium (specific gravity 22.6) are the densest metals, and lithium (specific gravity 0.53) is the least dense. The majority of metals crystallize in the cubic system, but some crystallize in the hexagonal and tetragonal systems (see Crystal). Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silvers the highest at ordinary temperatures. The conductivity of most metals can be lowered by alloying. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled, but certain alloys, such as platinum and iridium alloys, have extremely low coefficients of expansion.
II. Language Focus

Exercise 1. Read the following international words and guess their meaning.

Mind the stress.

metal

element


chemical

physical


temperature

electrical

diagonal

aluminium

cadmium

Molybdemum



palladium

platinum


radium

uranium


substance

limit


to crystallize

cubic


system

electrical

extremely



Exercise 2. Memorize the following pairs of derivatives.

V - N Adj - Adv

to exhibit-exhibition physical-physically

to separate-separation ordinary-ordinarily

to compose-composition electrical-electrically

to combine-combination common-commonly

to know-knowledge certain-certainly

to vary –variant wide-widely

to crystallize-crystallization dense-densely

to expand-expansion low-lowly
Exercise 3. Transform as in the models.

Model 1: to exhibit qualities - the exhibition of qualities

To separate metals, to compose a substance, to combine elements, to know properties, to vary definitions,

to crystallize the majority of metals, to expand alloys.

Model 2: a physical quality - to qualify physically

An ordinary measurement, an electrical conductor, a common mixture, certain compounds, a wide range,

a dense population, a low electrical conductivity.
Exercise 4. Match English and Russian equivalents.

1. Conductivity a) сероватого оттенка

2. Solid state b) расширяться при нагревании

3. Metallic properties c) низкий коэффициент

4. Intimate mixture d) проводимость

5. Grayish in color e) температура плавления

6. Melting point f) свойства металла

7. To expand when heated g) кубическая система

8. Low coefficient h) твердое состояние

9. Cubic system i) общие пределы

10. General limits g) однородная смесь
Exercise 5. Choose the right word or word-combination.

Pure aluminum is a silvery-white metal with _1_ desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic (as the metal), nonmagnetic and nonsparking. It is easily _2_ , machined, and cast. Pure aluminum _3_ and lacks strength, but alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements _4_ very useful properties. Aluminum is an abundant element _5_ the earth's crust, but it is not _6_ free in nature. The Bayer process is used to refine aluminum from bauxite, an aluminum ore. Because _7_ aluminum's mechanical and physical properties, it is an extremely convenient and widely used metal

1. a) many b) much c) lots

2. a) formatted b) forming c) formed

3. a) is soft b) are soft c) softly

4. a) has b) have c) having

5. a) in b) at c) of

6. a) found b) find c) finding

7. a)in b) at c) of
Exercise 6. Complete the sentences, inserting parts of the sentences given below.

1 .Non-ferrous metals are metals ....

2. There are two groups of metals: ....

3. Ferrous metals contain iron, for example ....

4. Non-ferrous metals don't contain iron, for example ....

5. Nonferrous metals are specified for structural applications ....

6. They are also specified ....


  1. aluminium, brass, copper and titanium

  2. that do not contain iron.

  3. for electrical and electronic applications.

  1. requiring reduced weight, higher strength, nonmagnetic properties, etc.

  2. carbon steel, stainless steel and wrought iron

  3. ferrous and non-ferrous.


Exercise 7. Insert the right word.

(temperature, limits, structure, properties, alloy, colour, elements)



  1. Silver has the highest electrical conductivity at ordinary ....

  2. Metals have a crystalline ... when in the solid state.

  3. The ... of metals vary widely.

  4. Pleochroism is a phenomenon when metals display more than one ....

  5. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other ....

  6. A substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals is called an ....

  7. The properties of metals vary widely within the general ... of the definition of a metal.


II. Comprehension Check and Summarizing

Exercise 8. Answer the questions on the text.

  1. What are physical qualities of metals?

  2. In which way are metals and nonmetals separated in the periodic table?

  3. What metals have both metallic and nonmetallic properties?

  4. What do the common metallic elements include?

  5. What is an alloy?

  6. What are the melting points of metals?

  7. What metal has the highest electrical conductivity?

  8. Do metals expand when heated?


Exercise 9. Decide which statements are true and which ones are false.

1. All metals are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque,; good conductors; lustrous when polished; and have a crystalline structure when in the solid state.



  1. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line.

  2. Elements to the left of this diagonal are nonmetals, and elements to the right are metals.

  3. Elements that make up this diagonal have nonmetallic properties.

  4. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements.

  5. A substance composed of two or more metals is called an alloy.

  6. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is black, and gold is yellow.

  7. Osmium and iridium are the densest metals.

  8. Bismuth has the highest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silvers the lowest at ordinary temperatures.

  9. Platinum and iridium alloys have extremely low coefficients of expansion.


Exercise 10. Make a summary of the text.
Text B. Ferrous Metals

1. Read the text and answer the questions below.

As one knows metals can be divided into ferrous and non-ferrous. The former contain iron and the latter do not contain iron. It is to be noted that pure iron is soft, ductile and relatively weak. lt is not normally used as an engineering material because of its low strength That is why iron has to be combined with other elements such as carbon, silicon, phosphorus etc The two most important forms of ferrous metals are cast iron and steel, which are both alloys or mixtures of iron and carbon. And carbon is the most important of all elements present in ferrous alloy. Steel and cast iron differ in the quantity of carbon content: iron-carbon alloys with more than approximately 2% by weight of carbon are cast irons.

Cast iron is the cheapest of the ferrous metals. Cast iron is a general term to be applied to iron-carbon alloys containing more than 2.0 per cent of carbon. Cast iron without the addition of alloying elements is weak in tension and shear, strong in compression and has low resistance to impact.

Grey cast iron is an alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon is present in free or graphite state. Grey cast iron has its term because of special colour of its fracture It is soft, easily machined and only moderately brittle. It is used for the parts not to be subjected to great tensile stresses.

However, many castings that were formerly made of grey cast iron are now made of malleable iron because malleable castings do possess a degree of toughness and this is probably why they have been so named. Malleable iron castings can be made much thinner in section. But they are seldom used in the form they come from the moulds (литейная формa, изложница) as they are hard and brittle and therefore they should be annealed. Malleable iron is the most easily machined of all ferrous alloys.

Malleable iron before annealing is usually spoken of as “white” iron. White iron is difficult to machine because most of the carbon present is in chemical combination with iron. It is desirable to use it in those machines, which require some resistance to abrasion. The tensile strength of white cast iron is about 30.000 psi (pounds per square inch).




  1. Is iron used as an engineering material? Why?

  2. What are the most important forms of ferrous metals?

  3. Which is the cheapest of the ferrous metals?

  4. What are the properties of cast iron without the addition of alloying elements?

  5. Is grey cast iron brittle?

  6. Malleable castings possess a degree of toughness, don't they?

  7. What is "white" iron?

  8. What iron is the most easily machined of all ferrous alloys?


Text C. Non-ferrous Metals

1. Read the text and describe major operations one can do on a lathe.

Non-ferrous are metals and alloys the main component of which is not iron but some other elements such as aluminum, copper and others. Some of the characteristics of non-ferrous metals are high electric and heat conductivity, high corrosion resistance, light weight and ease of fabrication.

We know aluminum to be one of the best-known light metals. Aluminum was first produced in the laboratory in 1825 by reducing aluminum chloride. However, wide acceptance of aluminum as an engineering material did not occur until World War II. Since then usage of aluminum has steadily increased each year. Aluminum is said to be a white silvery metal, which does not rust in the air. Its good corrosion resistance and low density permit it to be widely used in the field of transportation. It is to be noted that aluminum is highly ductile and can be shaped easily by a wide variety of methods and can be rolled. The tensile strength of aluminum is low in comparison with that of iron. The good electrical conductivity of the metal makes it suitable for many applications in the electrical industry. Everybody knows aluminum to be used extensively for castings that must be light in weight, light in colour or that must not rust. To make aluminum harder it is necessary to add some other metals to it. Copper, zinc and iron are the metals that alloy freely with aluminum.

Historically, copper became one of the first engineering metals. It is known to have been used in prehistoric times for making weapons and tools. Later it was alloyed with tin to form bronze. Having very high electric conductivity and high corrosion-resistant qualities, pure copper is a good conductor. However, copper alloys are stated to be more widely employed, chief among them are brasses and bronzes. Brasses are alloys of copper and zinc in different proportions.

Bronze is an alloy containing primarily copper and tin, but other elements can be added to the alloy to improve its properties such as hardness and resistance to wear. Additions of some other elements to copper alloys permit certain properties to be made better.
2. Render the text in Russian.
Text D. Tool

1. Read the text and describe the main kinds of tools.

Tool is an instrument for making material changes on other objects, as by cutting, shearing, striking, rubbing, grinding, squeezing, measuring, or other process. A hand tool is a small manual instrument traditionally operated by the muscular strength of the user; a machine tool is a power-driven mechanism used to cut, shape, or form materials such as wood and metal. Tools are the primary means by which human beings control and manipulate their physical environment.

Dating back to approximately 2,600,000 years ago, the beginning of the Paleolithic Age, the earliest known tools consisted of variously sized examples of the pebble tool, or chopper. The chopper is thought to be the first tool made and used by human beings. The chopper typically consisted of a water-worn, fist-sized rock, which had been chipped away at one end to create a roughly serrated-edge. It was used for Paleolithic man's most urgent necessity, cutting through the skin and sinews of the animals he hunted. The chopper was the only tool used by humanity for almost 2,000,000 years, until the appearance of the hand axe, a superior version of the chopper. In this tool the entire surface of the rock was worked. Because both faces were chipped, the edge of the hand axe was considerably sharper than that of the earlier chopper.

Modern hand tools were developed in the period after 1500 BC. They are now generally considered in the following classes: percussive tools, which deliver blows (the axe, adz and hammer); cutting, drilling, and abrading tools (the knife, awl, drill, saw, file, chisel and plane); the screw-based tools (screwdrivers and wrenches); measuring tools (ruler, plumb line, level, square, compass, and chalk line); and accessory tools (the workbench, vise, tongs and pliers).

With the invention of the steam engine in the 18th century, mankind discovered how to drive tools mechanically. In particular, machine-driven tools became necessary to manufacture the parts for the machines that now made goods formerly produced by hand. Most common machine tools were designed by the middle of the 19th century. Today, scores of different machine tools are used in the workshops of home and industry. These are frequently classified into seven types: turning machines; shapers and planers; power drills; milling machines; grinding machines; power saws; and presses.

The most fundamental of all seven is the horizontal metal-turning machine called the lathe, which is employed in a vast number of turning, facing, and drilling operations.

Shapers and planers use single-point tools to machine flat surfaces. Shapers move the cutting tool back and forth over the material, peeling away the surface, whereas planers have stationary tools, and the surface is moved to encounter them. Power drills are usually known as drill presses and have a twist drill that cuts holes in metal and other substances. They can also be used for many of the countersinking, boring, tapping, and other purposes for which lathes are frequently used.
II. Grammar

1. Подготовиться к лексико-грамматическому тесту по текстам:

«The Gasoline Engine», «The diesel engine»


2. Повторить грамматический материал к лексико-грамматическому тесту:
2.1. Имя существительное. Мн. Число. Существительное в функции определения и его перевод. Суффиксы производных существительных.

2.2. Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения. Сравнительные конструкции. Суффиксы производных прилагательных.

2.3. Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные, неопределённые, относительные и отрицательные.

2.4. Видо-временные формы глагола:

- Активный залог – формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future).

Continuous (Present, Past, Future).

Perfect (Present, Past, Future).

2.5. Спряжение глаголов to be, to have; и их функции.

2.6. Оборот There + to be.

III. Tests.

Text 1. The Gasoline Engine

If the fuel (gas, oil) burns inside an engine cylinder, it is then called an internal combustion engine. A gasoline engine is the perfect example. There are two types of gasoline engines - the two-cycle and four-cycle engines. Both types have pistons that move up and down in cylinders.

One cycle (or stroke) is one up movement or one down movement of a piston. In a two-cycle engine, each piston goes down once and up once every time the spark plugs ignite the fuel. Two-cycle engines are used where the machine needs to be light in weight. A power lawn mower usually has a two-cycle engine. So does a model airplane engine. Speed and efficiency are not too important.

Most larger gasoline engines, such as those in automobiles, are four-cycle. In these four-cycle engines, each piston goes down twice and up twice while the fuel is ignited once. A starter mechanism sets the pistons in motion. Once started, explosions resulting from the spark plugs igniting the fuel help keep the pistons moving. Each piston is connected by a rod to a crankshaft which transfers the power to the wheels of the machine.

Every piston goes down twice and up twice (four cycles) to every explosion. The strokes are called intake, compression, power, and exhaust. As the drawing show, one down stroke draws in fuel (intake); one up stroke compresses or squeezes the fuel into the top of the cylinder where it is ignited by the spark plug (compression); a second down stroke uses the power of the explosion to turn the crankshaft (power); a second up stroke drives the burned gases out the exhaust valve (exhaust). This operation is, of course, repeated over and over in every cylinder. The four strokes in one cylinder are completed in a fraction of a second.

There are usually six or more pistons in a four-cycle engine. To get the most power the explosions are timed to go off at different times in each cylinder.


Text 2. The Diesel Engine

The diesel engine is also an internal combustion engine. It works on the same cylinder and pistons principal as a gasoline engine. There are, however, two main differences between the diesel and gasoline engine. A diesel engine uses a special grade of fuel oil - not gasoline. Hot compressed air - not the spark from a spark plug - ignites this fuel oil.

There are two-cycle and four-cycle diesel engines. Let's look at the operation of the one cylinder in a four-cycle diesel engine:

A starter gets the piston moving. As the piston moves downward, it draws air into the cylinder through an air valve. (In some engines, air is forced in by a blower called a supercharger.) That completes one cycle (or stroke). The piston then moves up compressing or squeezing the air into the top of the cylinder. As the air is squeezed, its temperature is increased to about 900° F. this completes the second cycle. Next the oil intake valve opens and oil is sprayed into the cylinder. The heat from the air (like the spark in a gasoline engine) ignites the oil. The resulting explosion forces the piston dawn ward. This third cycle is the power stroke; it turns the engine drive shaft. Finally, as in a burned engine, the piston conies back up and forces the burned or exhaust gases out of the cylinder through an escape valve. This all takes only seconds and occurs in all the cylinders at timed intervals.

A diesel engine gets more energy out of its fuel than any other type internal combustion engine. It is more efficient than a steam engine. The fuel is cheaper, too, requiring less refining than gasoline. Much progress has been made in the design of diesel engines in recent years so more and more of them are in use today. This is especially true among automobiles and light trucks.

III. Oral Presentation.1. Properties of Metals.

2. Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metals

IV. Supplementary Reading

1.Personal Information

1. Task 1. Answer the following questions.


  1. What’s your name and surname?

  2. How old are you?

  3. Where are you from? Where do you live?

  4. What kind of school did you study at? (What kind of college did you finish?)

  5. Did you serve in the army?

  6. Are you married or single?

  7. Have you got a family?

  8. What does your father (mother) do?

  9. What’s your job?

  10. Why have you made up mind to enter the BNTU?

  11. What year student are you?

  12. What department do you study at?

  13. Are you a part-time student at the Belarusian National Technical University?

  14. What will your future speciality be?


2. Task 2. Make up your own topic according to the model.

My name is Victor Petrov. I am 22 years old. I was born in Minsk. At the age of 18 after leaving the secondary school I served in the army for two years. When I returned from the army I went to work as a welder in a building company.

I’m married. My wife is studying at the Belarusian National Technical University. She will work with heating and cooling equipment in two years.

My father is an architect. My mother works as a teacher at the Engineers and Teachers’ Training Department. My uncle graduated from the Transport Communications Department. He is participating in the construction of the Minsk Ring Automobile Road. He is successful at his work, I’ve made up my mind to get university education too. First of all, it is our family tradition and I’d like to follow it. Now I am a first year student of the Engineering Department. My practical experience will help me to make my career. I’m a part-time student at the Belarusian National Technical University My speciality deals with Concrete Structures and Units Manufacturing. I hope to become a highly qualified engineer.


Notes on the Text


Engineer and Teachers’ Training Department
Professional Training (machine-building)

- инженерно-педагогический факультет


- профессиональное обучение (машиностроение)


Power Engineering Construction Department
Heating, Air Conditioning, Gas supply and Air Protection
Water Supply, Waste Water Treatment, Water Protection

- факультет энергетического строительства


- теплогазоснабжение, вентиляция и охрана воздушного бассейна
- водоснабжение, водоотведение и охрана водных ресурсов


Civil Engineering Department
Industrial and Civil Engineering
Concrete Structures and Units Manufacturing (er)
Economics in Construction
Management in Construction
Expertize (Evaluation) and Realty Management

- строительный факультет


- промышленное и гражданское строительство
- производство строительных изделий и конструкций
- экономика и организация производства (строительства)
- менеджмент в строительстве
- экспертиза и управление недвижимостью


Transport Communications Department
Lifting-Conveying, Building and Road Machines
Highway Construction

- факультет транспортных коммуникаций


- подъемно-транспортные, строительные, дорожные машины
- автомобильные дороги


2. The BNTU

The Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) founded more 80 years ago (in 1920) is one of the largest educational and scientific centers of the Republic of Belarus. It started as a vocational school; in some years it was turned into an agricultural institute; in 1930s, when several Belarusian higher institutions were combined into one, it became the Belarusian Polytechnical Institute. In 1990s the institute was renamed into the Belarusian State Polytechnical Academy (BSPA), and now it is called the BNTU.

At first, there were only 6 departments there. Now the Belarusian National Technical University consists of 15 departments: Automobiles and Tractor Maintenance, Nature Resources and Ecology, Power Engineering Construction, Engineers and Teachers’ Training, Civil Engineering, Transport Communications etc.

The University is headed by the rector and 8 prorectors who are responsible for the whole work of the BNTU. Each department is headed by a dean who directs the activities of the department. The teaching staff at the University is highly qualified. The Academicians, Professors, State Prize Laureates, science workers are working at the BNTU. Modern technical aids, the newest technological equipment and computers are widely used in the process of instruction. There is a well-stocked library at the University. It gives an opportunity to widen students’ outlook.

Our University occupies 18 buildings. The total number of students is over 27000 (including international students). There are full-time students and part-time students. The university trains engineers for the main braches of the national economy. The most modern industrial enterprises and construction sites provide facilities for the students to acquire practical experience. New specialities have recently appeared.

The teaching process at the University is organized in the following way. The academic year is divided into 2 terms. During the terms students attend lectures and carry out laboratory and practical work. At the end of each term students pass credit tests and sit exams. The course of studies for engineers lasts 5 years. The BNTU graduates work at various plants, factories, universities and laboratories. A lot of them continue their study as post-graduates.

Research work at the BNTU is being done on the most urgent scientific problems. The students are involved in the scientific and research projects. Fundamental researches and applied work carried out at the BNTU have become the basis for holding various international conferences, seminars and exhibitions with the participation of UNESCO, UNO (United Nations Organization) and CE (Council of Europe).

Краткий грамматический справочник

1. Существительное (The Noun)


    1. Определение.

Существительное – часть речи, обозначающая предметы и явления, мыслимые как предметы.

a hammer – молоток

a plan – план

research – научная работа

а bridge – мост

Brest – Брест

construction – строительство




    1. Классификация.

Существительные делятся на несколько классов:


1.3.1. Число существительного.

Исчисляемые существительные имеют формы единственного и множественного числа. Модели, по которым образуются формы множественного числа существительных, приведены в следующей таблице:


Таблица . Множественное число нарицательных существительных

Способы образования множеств числа:

Примечания:


  1. [z]

    после звонких согласных и гласных

    N→ N(e)s



a damdams [dæmz]

clayclays [kleiz]


после глухих

согласных

[s]

a pipe → pipes [paips]

a
[iz]
task → task
s [tΛsks]


после шипящих и

свистящих согласных



a press→ presses [presiz]

a box → boxes [boksiz]


Cоставные существительные:

a boiler-house → boiler-houses но: a passer-by → passers-by

a schoolboy → schoolboys a sister-in-law → sisters-in-law


В
a city → cities

a factory → factories

но: clay → clays


Ny →Nies
арианты орфографии:



a mix → mixes

a press → presses


Ns,ss,ch,sh,x →Nes

a fresco → frescoes

но: kilos, photos


a knife → knives

a life → lives

a leaf → leaves

Nf(e) → Nves

No → Nes







  1. Чередование гласной корня



a man → men a tooth → teeth

a foot → feet a mouse → mice

Cоставные существительные:

a fireman → firemen

a woman-scientist→women-scientists

a man-doctor → men-doctors



  1. Уникальные формы



datum→data phenomenon → phenomena

basis → bases formula → formuli





  1. a N → N



a means (средство)→ means(средства)

a fish (рыба, одна)fish (рыба, соб. знач)

Но: fishes – виды/сорта рыбы




  1. Исключения:




  2. только ед. число: information (информация), matter(материя)

только множ. число: jeans (джинсы), scissors (ножницы).

но: news (новости, ед.число).




1.3. Падеж существительного.

В английском языке существительное имеет 2 падежа: общий и притяжательный. Форма притяжательного падежа строится на основе общего (словарная форма):




NN’s

the engineer → the engineer’s recommendations (рекомендации инженера)



Ns→Ns’

the engineers → the engineers’ recommendations (рекомендации инженеров)

но: those men’s job (работа этих мужчин)

В притяжательном падеже употребляются названия людей, групп людей,

Mike’s computer – компьютер Миши

the children’s plan – план детей

the dean’s office – кабинет декана

the firm’s structure – структура фирмы

the horse’s tail – хвост лошади

America’s decision – решение Америки

today’s exam – сегодняшний экзамен

yesterday’s lecture – вчерашняя лекция
2. Имя прилагательное(THE ADJECTIVE)

В английском языке имя прилагательное имеет те же степе­ни сравнения, что и в русском: положительную (positive), срав­нительную (comparative) и превосходную (superlative).

Одно- и двусложные прилагательные образуют сравнитель­ную степень при помощи суффикса -еr, а превосходную при помощи суффикса -est, которые прибавляются к прилагательному в положительной степени:

long - longer — the longest

Степени сравнения многосложных прилагательных образу­ются при помощи слов more — для сравнительной и most для превосходной степени:

important - more important - the most important

Степени сравнения наречий образуются аналогично степеням

сравнения прилагательных: late - later - the latest, actively -

more actively - the most actively.

Некоторые прилагательные и наречия образуют степени

сравнения не по правилу:


good

well


better

(the) best

bad

badly


worse

(the) worst

much

many


more

(the) most

little

less

(the) least

far

farther

further


(the) farthest

(the) furthest


В английском языке после прилагательного в сравнительной степени употребляется союз than (чем), тогда как в русском языке этот союз может опускаться:

My son is younger than yours. Мой сын моложе, чем ваш.
СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ КОНСТРУКЦИИ
Прилагательные и наречия могут употребляться в следующих сравнительных конструкциях:


Модель

Перевод

Пример

as ... as


такой же ... как
так же...как

This boy is as tall as my brother.

Этот мальчик такой же высокий, как мой брат.

Не runs as fast as you do.

Он бегает так же быстро, как ты.



not so ... as

(not as ... as)




не такой ... как
не так ... как

This room is not so light as that one.

Эта комната не такая светлая, как та.

She doesn't know Minsk as well as we do.

Она знает Минск не так хорошо, как мы.



the ... the ...

чем ... тем

The earlier we leave, the sooner we'll arrive.

Чем раньше мы от правимся, тем скорее приедем.




3. Местоимение(THE PRONOUN)

По своему значению местоимения делятся на следующие разряды:



Вид

Формы

Личные местоимения (Personal Pronouns)

Именительный падеж

Объектный падеж

I - я we - мы

you - ты, вы you - вы

he - он they - они

she - она

it - он, она, оно (неодуш.)


mе - меня, мне us - нас, нам

you - тебя, тебе you - вас, вам

him - его, ему them - их, им

her - ее, ей

it - его, ее, ему, ей


Притяжательные местоимения (Possessive Pronouns)

I форма

ту - мой (-я, -е, -и)

your - твой (-я, -е, -и)

Ваш (-а, -е, -и)

his - его her - ее

its - его, ее (неодуш.)

our - наш (-а, -е, -и)

their - их



II форма

mine - мой (-я, -е, -и)

yours - твой (-я, -е, -и)

Ваш (-а, -е, -и)

his - его

hers - ее

its - его, ее

ours - наш (-а, -е, -и)

theirs - их


Примечание: 1) все эти местоимения могут переводиться как свой.

2) II форма притяжательных местоимений (притяжательные местоимения в абсолютной форме) употребляются самостоятельно, т. е. вместо существительных.



Вид

Формы

Возвратные и усилительные местоимения (Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns) (совпадают по звучанию и написанию)


myself - (я) себя, сам (-а)

yourself - (ты, Вы) себя, сам (-и)

himself - (он) себя, сам

herself - (она) себя, сама

itself - (оно) себя, само

ourselves - (мы) себя, сами

yourselves - (вы) себя, сами

themselves - (они) себя, сами



Взаимные местоимения (Reciprocal Pronouns)

each other - друг друга

one another - один другого



Указательные местоимения (Demonstrative Pronouns)

Единственное число

Множественное число

this - этот (-а, -о) these - эти

that - тот (та, то) those - те

such - такой (такие)

the same - тот же самый, такой же



Вопросительные местоимения (Interrogative Pronouns)

who (whom) - кто (кого)

whose - чей

what - что, каков, какой, кто

which - который, какой, кто, что



Относительные и соеди­нительные местоимения (Relative and Conjunctive Pronouns)

who (whom) - кто (кого), который (которого)

whose - чей, которого

what - что, какой

which - который, какой, кто, что

that - который


Неопределенные местоимения (Indefinite Pronouns)

some - какой-то, некоторые, немного (в утв. предл.) (something, somebody, somewhere,)

any - 1) какой-нибудь, некоторые (в вопр. и отрицат. предл.) (anything, anybody, anywhere)

2) любой

one - некто, некий

all - все, весь, вся, все much - много (неисчисл.)

each - каждый few - мало (исчисл.)

a few - несколько

every - всякий, каждый little - мало (неисчисл.)

other - другой (-ие) a little – немного

another - другой (-я) either - любой (из двух)

both - оба nо - никакой, ни один, нет

many - много, многие nоnе - никто, ничто



(исчисляемые) neither - ни тот, ни другой, никто, ничто



5. Система видо-временных форм английского глагола

Глаголы в английском языке имеют четыре формы: инфинитив (Infinitive), прошедшее неопределенное время (Past Indefinite) и причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени (Participle I, Participle II или Present и Past Participle).



Infinitive

Past Indefinite

Participle II

Participle I

to ask

to go


asked

went


asked

gone


asking

going


Все английские глаголы делятся на правильные и неправильные. Правильные глаголы образуют формы Past Indefinite путем прибавления суффикса -ed к основе глагола: to stop -stopped - stopped.

Формы неправильных глаголов следует заучивать: to write -wrote - written (см. Таблицу неправильных глаголов).

В английском языке имеется четыре группы времен: Indefi­nite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuos, которые образуют двенадцать временных форм.

Времена группы INDEFINITE




Present

Past

Future

Affirmative

I

We work

You

They
He



She works

It


I

We

You



They worked

He

She



It

I shall work

We
You

They

He will work



She

It


Negative

I

We do not

You (don’t) work

They
He does not

She (doesn't)

It work



I

We

You did not



They (didn't)

He work

She

It


I shall not (shan't)

We will not (won't) work

You

They will not



He (won't)

She work

It


Interrogative

I

we

Do you work?

hey
he

Does she work?

it


I

we

you



Did they work?

he

she



it

Shall I work?

We
you

they

Will he work?

she


it


Глагол “to be”.

Формы глагола “to be”




Present

Past

Future

Indefinite

I am / he(she, it)is / we(you, they)are

I (he, she, it) was / we(you, they)were

I (we) shall be

he(she, it you they)will be



Continuous

I am

h
being


e(she, it)is

we(you they)



are


being


was

were

___

Perfect

h
been
e has

we have



had been

will have been


Функции глагола “to be”

Функция

Пример и перевод

С
to be + Prep +N
мысловой глагол

to be + Adv.


The lecturer is in the dean’s office.

Лектор (находится) в деканате.
The lecturer is here.

Лектор (находится) здесь.



Вспомогательный глагол

а
to be+Participle II


) страдательный залог
b
to be +Participle I
) времена группы Continuous


The lecturer was asked a question.

Лектору был задан вопрос.
The student is making notes of the lecture.

Студент конспектирует лекцию.



Г
to be + Adj.
лагол- связка


to be + Infinitive




The lecture is interesting. - Лекция интересна.

My aim is to enter the University – Моя цель – поступить в университет.


Модальный глагол


to be + Infinitive





You are to make notes of the lecture. – Вы должны конспектировать лекцию.


Глагол “to have”.

Формы глагола “to have”




Present

Past

Future

+

I (we, you, they) have

He (she, it) has



I (you, she, he, it, we, they) had

We (you, she, he, it, we, they) will have

_

I (we, you, they) haven’t

He (she, it) hasn’t



I (you, she, he, it, we, they) hadn’t

I (you, she, he, we, they)

will not (won’t) have

?

Have I (we, you, they) ?

Has he (she, it)…?

Had you (I, she, he, it, we, they)…?

Will you (I, she, he, it, we, they) have…?


Функции глагола “to have”

Функция

Пример и перевод

Смысловой глагол


to have+N




They have 3 lectures today.

У них сегодня 3 лекции.


Вспомогательный глагол при

образовании времён группы Perfect


to have + Participle II


We have passed the exam.

Мы сдали экзамен.
When I called they had already got their credits in English.

Когда я позвонил, они уже получили зачёт по английскому языку.



М
to have+Infinitive
одальный глагол

I will have to take 3 exams this summer.

Я должен буду сдать 3 экзамена этим летом.
He has to attend 3 lectures a day.

Ему приходится посещать по 3 лекции в день.




Глагол “to do”.

Формы глагола “to do”




Present

Past

Future

+

I (we, you, they) do…

He (she, it) does…



I (you, she, he, it, we, they) did

We (you, she, he, it, we, they) will do

_

I (we, you, they) don’t do…

He (she, it) doesn’t do…



I (you, she, he, it, we, they) didn’t do…

I (you, she, he, we, they)

will not (won’t) do…


?

Do I (we, you, they) do…?

Does he (she, it) do…?

Did you (I, she, he, it, we, they) do…?

Will you (I, she, he, it, we, they) do…?


Функции глагола “to do”

Функции

Пример и перевод

С
to do + N
мысловой глагол


We’ll do the homework in the morning.

Мы сделаем домашнее задание утром.



Вспомогательный глагол

а
do + not


) отрицательная

форма


б
do + N V… ?
) вопросительная

форма


We don’t have classes in the morning.

У нас нет занятий утром.

Do the students have classes in the morning?

У студентов есть занятия по утрам?




У
do +V
силительное do


Do explain it again.

Пожалуйста, объясните это ещё раз.



Заменитель другого глагола

We don’t speak German, but he does.

Мы не говорим по-немецки, а он говорит.


7. Оборот there is (there are)

Предложения с вводным there сообщают о наличии или су­ществовании лица или предмета в каком-либо определенном месте.

Вводное there в предложении является формальным подле­жащим, которое вводит сказуемое.

После оборота there is (are, was, were, will be) исчисляемые существительные в единственном числе употребляются с неоп­ределенным артиклем. Во множественном числе существитель­ные употребляются без артикля.

В случае наличия в предложении более одного подлежащего сказуемое согласуется с первым из них.

There is a newspaper and some journals on the table.

There are some journals and a newspaper on the table.

При переводе на русский язык предложений с вводным there перевод обычно начинается с обстоятельства (места или време­нив:
There is a lamp on the table. На столе есть (имеется, на­ходится) лампа.

There is much snow in winter. Зимой много снега.


Сказуемым в предложении такого типа может быть не толь­ко глагол to be, но и другие глаголы: to exist (существовать), to live (жить), to come (приходить), to lie (лежать) и др.
There appeared many new parties in the country. В стране появилось много новых партий.


There is (are, was, were will be)




Present Indefinite

Past Indefinite

Future Indefinite

Affirmative

There is a letter in the bag.

There are letters in the bag.



There was a letter in the bag.

There were letters in the bag.



There will be a letter in the bag.

There will be letters in the bag.



Interrog,

Is there a letter in the bag?

Are there letters in the bag?



Was there a letter in the bag?

Were there letters in the bag?



Will there be a letter in the bag?

Will there be letters in the bag?



Negative

There is not (isn't) a letter in the bag.

There are no letters in the bag.



There was not (wasn't) a letter in the bag.

There were no letters in the bag.




There will not (won't) be a letter in the bag.

There will be no letters in the bag.







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