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Требования к выполнению контрольных работ

по английскому языку


  1. Выполнение контрольной работы является обязательным этапом в процессе, предусмотренным государственным образовательным стандартом высшего профессионального образовании РФ.

  2. Необходимо не позднее, чем за неделю до начала сессии зарегистрировать и сдать на кафедру «Общеобразовательных дисциплин» контрольную работу по английскому языку на проверку. По истечении данного срока контрольные не принимаются.

  3. За каждую контрольную работу студент получает «зачтено» или «не зачтено». При наличии недопустимого количества ошибок контрольная возвращается студенту для выполнения этого же варианта контрольной работы заново. При отсутствии работы студент не допускается к сдаче зачета/экзамена по предмету.

  4. Вариант контрольной работы определяется по порядковому номеру студента в списке группы/ведомости. Если вариант выбран ошибочно, контрольная работа на проверку не принимается.

  5. Контрольная работа по английскому языку выполняется печатным компьютерным текстом на листах формата А4 с абзацным отступом 3 см и полями шириной 5 см. При выполнении контрольной работы необходимо сохранить структуру работы и последовательность заданий. Листы работы подшиваются в папку.

Сочи 2010

Министерство образования и науки РФ

ГОУ ВПО Московский автомобильно-дорожный государственный

Технический университет (МАДИ)

Сочинский филиал




Регистрационный №________

Дата регистрации__________

Методист


КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № _______

по дисциплине ____________________

Вариант № ___

Выполнил(а) студент(ка) группы ОБД_________

_________________________________________

(фамилия, имя, отчество)

Проверил(а) ______________________________

(ученая степень, звание, должность)

_________________________________________

(фамилия, имя, отчество)


Проверена _______________________________

(дата, подпись преподавателя)

Сочи 2010



Требования

Для успешного выполнения заданий 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 части контрольной работы № 3 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендуемым учебникам:

1. Времена групп Simple, Continuous, and Perfect.

2. Страдательный залог.

3. Правила согласования времен в английском языке.

4. Условные предложения I, II, III, типа.

5. Условное, сослагательное и повелительное наклонение в английском языке.

Для успешного выполнения 4-й части контрольной работы необходимо внимательно ознакомиться с требованиями написания резюме по учебнику Бизнес-курс английского языка. / И.С. Богацкий, Н.М. Дюканова Москва, 2007-352с.

Сочи 2010
Variant 1

Часть 1


Road Traffic Crashes

Road traffic crashes kill 1.2 million people each year and injure millions more, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Every day just over 1000 young people under the age of 25 years are killed in road traffic crashes around the world. Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death globally among 15–19-year-olds, while for those in the 10–14-years and 20–24-years age brackets they are the second leading cause of death. Most young people killed in road crashes are vulnerable road users – pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and passengers of public transport – with those from the African and Eastern Mediterranean regions most at risk. In many parts of the world children and young adults and other vulnerable road users have been given inadequate consideration in urban planning decisions. As a result, they are often forced to share transport space with motorized vehicles, increasing their chances of being involved in a road traffic crash. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity among children, and inexperience and youth-related lifestyles further increase the risk of young road users – particularly males – to road traffic collisions.

A number of factors increase the likelihood of road traffic injuries occurring, not only among young people, but also in the general population. These include speed, lack of helmet use, lack of seat-belt and child restraint use, drinking and driving, and lack of conspicuity. Interventions to address these specific risk factors have been promoted through the World report on road traffic injury prevention. Strategies to protect children in traffic can include modifications to the environment and to vehicles and changes in behaviour.

Some strategies can be used specifically at reducing road traffic crashes among youth. These include addressing the major risk factors, through legislation and enforcement, and by educating the public about the use of protective equipment. Road traffic injuries are a public health epidemic that costs countries millions of dollars. However, there is evidence of what can be done effectively to cut the volume of deaths and injuries linked to road traffic crashes. Bringing about a reduction in the road traffic toll among youth requires both political will and financial investments in prevention efforts targeting young people.


I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык.

получить увечья –

развивающиеся страны –

уязвимый –

средиземноморский –

население –

шлем –

средство обеспечения безопасности ребенка –



защищать –

требование о соблюдении законов –

меры предосторожности –
II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. In what countries do traffic crashes kill and injure people more than in others?

  2. Among what age are road traffic injures the leading cause of death?

  3. What are most young people killed in road crashes?

  4. What can strategies to protect children in traffic include?

  5. How much does road traffic injures cost countries?

  6. What does a reduction in the road traffic toll among youth require?


III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.

Часть 2


Gear

Gear is a toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. Two or more gears, transmitting motion from one shaft to another, constitute a gear train. Gearing is chiefly used to transmit rotating motion, but can, with suitably designed gears and flat-toothed sectors, be employed to transform reciprocating motion into rotating motion, and vice versa.

Gears have many uses in our lives. They are used to: multiply or reduce speed and force, change the direction of motion, transmit a force over a distance. Intermeshing gears are used to transmit motion and force. A series of intermeshing gears is called a gear train. Intermeshing gears turn in opposing directions. An understanding of some of the terminology is needed. In a gear train we have a gear known as the driver and one known as the follower. Driver - is the gear that has the force or motion input. Follower - is the gear that results in the force or motion output. If we were to turn the large gear (driver) we can multiply the number of turns generated by the smaller gear (follower).

We often talk about a gear ratio. The gear ratio of a gear train is the number of teeth on the follower divided by the number of teeth on the driver. In the gear train above the driver has 18 teeth while the follower has 8 teeth. Therefore the gear ratio is 8/18 or 4/9. For every 4 turns of the driver the follower turns 9 times. This gear train can be used to multiply speed on a bicycle if the follower was connected to a wheel and the driver connected to the paddles.

Now if we were to change the driver and the follower we can increase the gear ratio. The gear ratio of the gear train on the right is 18/8 or 9/4. For every 9 turns of the driver the follower will make 4 complete rotations. Now this gear train is not for multiplying speed but for multiplying force.


I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.

шестерня –

вращательный –

сложный зубчатый механизм –

наоборот –

передавать –

подача –

передаточное отношение –

зубья, зубцы –

педаль –


поворот –
II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.

III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

Часть 3


I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме

  1. The weather (to be) bad yesterday. It (to be) raining all the time.

  2. I (to come) home at 5 o’clock tomorrow.

  3. He (to be) at school now.

  4. Ann (to be) at the museum tomorrow evening?

  5. You (to read) books every day?

  6. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room.

  7. He (not to go) to the library tomorrow evening.

  8. I (to go) to Paris last year.

  9. Where he (to go) every morning?

  10. When you (to get up) every day?

– I (to get up) at 7 o’clock every day.

11. My sister (not to rest) now. She (to help) mother in the kitchen.

12. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait

for two hours before another one (to come).



  1. What you (to do) now? I (to see) that you not to read.

  2. My mother (not to be) at the butcher’s yesterday.

  3. I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to change).

  4. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain).

  5. How you usually (to spend) evenings?

  6. His wish (to come) true, he (to become) a famous singer.

  7. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.

  8. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait for two hours before another one (to come).

II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в страдательном залоге.

Образец:

The stone broke the window. - The window was broken by the stone.



  1. Margaret sang a song.

  2. The teacher taught the class.

  3. The boys kicked the ball.

  4. The woman ate all the cake.

  5. John answered all the questions.

  6. The boys did the exercises.

  7. I took the book.

  8. Richard threw a stone.

  9. They have promised me some books on this problem.

10. A passer-by showed us the way to Trafalgar square.

  1. They sent you the invitation last week.

  2. I am sure they will offer you a very interesting job.

  3. They recommended me several articles on that problem.

  4. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary.

  5. They have just shown me a new magazine.

III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования

времен

1. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)

2. The teacher asked the boys whether they ------------------ the problems. (to solve)

3. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)

4. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)

5. He kept quite that he --------------------- please me. (may)

6. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)

7. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes.

(would)

8. She ------------------ since she graduated from college. (to teach)



9. She went for a walk in the park when the weather ----------------- good.

10. Yesterday the patient ---------------- better than he ------------------ today. (to feel/to

feel)

11. By the time he returned, I --------------- ten pages of the report. (to type)



12. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation ---------------- ill yesterday. (to

fall)


13. While I ------------------- TV, the telephone rang. (to watch)

14. She goes for a walk in the park when the weather --------------- good. (to be)

15. John ------------- vegetables and later sold them. (to raise)

IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного

предложения

Образец:

Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом. – If I had seen him yesterday, I should have asked him about it. (условное предложение III типа)



  1. Он бы не простудился, если бы надел теплое пальто.

2. Мы были бы благодарны, если бы Вы были любезны прислать нам Ваш каталог дизелей.

3. Если бы я увидел его завтра, я бы спросил у него об этом.

4. Он не окончит работу вовремя, если не будет усердно работать.

5. Если бы ваши указания были получены десять дней тому назад, товар был бы отгружен вчера пароходом «Свирь».

6. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.

7. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.

8. Если я увижу его завтра, я спрошу его об этом.

9. Если бы я увидел своего приятеля вчера, я бы помог ему с переводом статьи.

10. Если вы его увидите, попросите его позвонить мне по телефону.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на

наклонение.

Образец:

Он вышел из дому, взял такси и поехал на вокзал. - He left the house, took a taxi and

drove to the station. (Indicative Mood)

1. Давай-ка садись и веди себя тихо.

2. Необходимо, чтобы вы сделали это задание в устной форме.

3. Кто-нибудь, ответьте по телефону/возьмите трубку, пожалуйста!

4. Он посмотрел на меня так, как будто бы не узнал меня.

5. Я бы желал, чтобы они совсем не приходили. (Как жаль, что они пришли).

6. Ну, ты, давай мне твой бумажник!

7. Обязательно свяжись со мной вскоре.

8. Ей не хотелось, чтобы мы шли за ней.

9. Пусть вам сопутствует удача!

10. Я писал письмо уже, час когда он пришел.

Часть 4


Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.

Variant 2

Часть 1

Preventing Road Traffic Injuries among Children

and Young People

In addition to a number of generic road safety prevention strategies – such as implementing laws, making vehicles safer and improving the conditions of roads – there are various interventions aimed at addressing some of the factors that increase the likelihood of children and youth being involved in a road traffic crash.

Modifying the road environment. A sustainable transport system is one that provides mobility and accessibility to all residents in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the case of the road system, this is clearly a complex task, as the needs of various groups of road users may conflict. The safety of all road users should be consciously included in the decision-making of urban and road planners. This in turn may require that new infrastructure be built, or that there is segregated road space between non-motorized and motorized traffic, so that each group has enough space on the transport network. Even in high-income countries, there should be a reassessment of the priority that has been given to cars. More resources should go specifically towards improving pedestrian and cyclist safety. Indeed, modifying the road environment to accommodate pedestrian needs would have health benefits other than injury prevention, stemming from increased physical activity and reduced pollution.

Infrastructural interventions include such things as safe crossings – zebra crossings or raised crossings – near school areas, and the availability of foot and bicycle paths. Such interventions can also be used to prevent children from crossing motorized traffic, for instance through the provision of well-lit footbridges or tunnels.

Parental guidance and support. Parents play an important role in the behaviour of young children. First, they make important decisions about the level of exposure of their children to risk. For example, they influence how often or how long children may be in traffic or on the road, and whether or not their children use child restraints or helmets. Second, they serve as important role models: children learn by imitation and careful observation of adults’ actions, and will begin developing road safety skills well before they reach school age.

Reducing exposure of young adults to traffic. There are a number of ways in which the exposure of young people to traffic risks can be reduced. Modifying the environment in the ways already referred to is one method. For example, paying greater attention to pedestrians and cyclists to enable more children to cycle or walk to school safely could reduce the exposure of these children to road traffic.

Beginner drivers lack the skills and experience necessary to successfully handle the risks they may encounter on the roads. An understanding of the factors that increase the risk of young drivers has changed traditional systems of licensing.

Other strategies. Various other strategies can be used to reduce the likelihood of an injury or fatality occurring in the event of a road traffic collision.


I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова

на английский язык.

транспортное средство –

вероятность –

экологически безопасное транспортное средство –

принятие решений –

переоценка, пересмотр –

повреждение, травма –

пешеходный переход (зебра) –

шлем –

лицензирование –



смерть от несчастного случая –
II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What strategies in addition to a number of generic road safety prevention, aimed at addressing some of the factors that increase the likelihood of children and youth being involved in a road traffic crash, should be taken?

  2. What system does provide mobility and accessibility to all residents?

  3. What do infrastructural interventions include?

  4. In what way do parents influence their children’s behaviour on the road?

  5. Which ways can you name to reduce traffic risks?

  6. What drivers lack the skills and experience on the road?


III. Письменно переведите абзацы 1, 2 на русский язык.
Часть 2

Construction of an Automobile

Engine, drive train, passenger compartment, electrical, are the main components. The engines can be gas/diesel, natural gas or hydrogen, or electrical. Most are gas, using an internal four stroke combustion engine. Many different sizes of engines and numbers of cylinders to produce power. A typical V8 motor with a naturally aspirated carburetor on it will generate on average 150 horsepower. Many factors and variables can change the horsepower rating, engine displacement being the main one. Power is derived from mixing air and fuel together in a combustion chamber and then igniting it with a spark to force a piston to travel and turn a crank. When the crank turns it in turn transfers power to some sort of transmission, either a manual or automatic transmission. The transmission is full of different gear ratios that are designed to handle the engines horsepower and increase speed more efficiently. The transmission transfers power to the rear or front wheels via a driveline that connects to a differential that transfers the power through the axles to the wheels.

The passenger compartment is where the passengers sit and can be accommodated with any number of luxuries. The electrical system supplies 12 volts to the vehicle by storing it in a battery and charging it. The 12 volts are used for lights, accessories, heat and cold, and numerous other duties, like supplying above mentioned part to the air fuel mixture to create an explosion. In a real little nut shell that is the major components, there is a lot more to the engine, like the distributor/timing, cooling system, oil and lubrication, power steering and such. The suspension is also another system consisting of the brakes, leaf springs, shocks, torsions bars or whatever to make the car ride smooth.
I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.

двигатель –

дизельный –

цилиндр –

карбюратор –

лошадиная сила –

объём двигателя –

камера сгорания –

передача –

ось –


смазка –
II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.

III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

Часть 3


I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме

1. My brother (to be) at school now.



  1. At 7 o’clock yesterday he (to look) out of the window.

  2. They (not to drink) tea now.

  3. Nobody (to want) to play tennis.

  4. They (to be) at school last week?

  5. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.

  6. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait for two hours before another one (to come).

  7. Mary doesn’t go to school. She (to be) ill?

  8. His wish (to be) to become a painter.

  9. Nobody (to be) at the office tomorrow.

  10. Peter (not to be) at school yesterday.

  11. The work (to be) very hard.

  12. He (to be) at the cinema last week.

  13. His sister (to bring) a kitten last week.

  14. My friend (not to be) in the park now. He (to be) at school.

  15. Tomorrow at 5 o’clock Peter and Mary (to be) in the yard.

  16. When your sister (to be) at home?

  17. My sister (to be) a student last year, but she (to be) a doctor now.

  18. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my friends there.

  19. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we (to come).

II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в страдательном залоге.

Образец:

The stone broke the window. - The window was broken by the stone.

1. He offered me a chair.

2. We gave him all the money.

3. Mother promised the boy a new toy.

4. Nobody has told me the news yet.

5. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.

6. Mary caught the ball.

7. She learned the poem.

8. The boy broke the window.

9. Sam wrote this letter.


  1. Mother cooked the dinner.

  2. Tom threw the stone.

  3. Sam had taken the ball

  4. I bought this book yesterday

14. Snow will cover the ground

15. I am writing a new book



III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования

Времен

  1. I thought that she --------------- knew that he had taken the first place in the chess tournament. (to know)

  2. John sold vegetables that he --------------- . (to raise)

  3. Renee ------------ had washed the car when George arrived. (to wash)

  4. The teacher told the children that water -------------- at 100 degrees centigrade. (to boil)

  5. He refused to go to the theatre as he ------------------ an examination in English in a few days. (to have)

  6. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)

  7. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)

  8. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)

  9. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).

  10. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)

  11. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)

  12. He has said that he ------------------- a letter. (to receive)

  13. Mary knows that you ---------------- busy. (to be)

  14. Once you ----------------- something, you cannot take it back. (to say)

  15. If you want to show another person your feelings, never ------------------- a letter. (to write)

IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного предложения

Образец:

Мы бы подписали контракт, если бы нам дали хорошую скидку. – We would have

signed the contract if they had given us a good discount. (условное предложение III типа)


  1. Если бы Арина пришла, я был бы рад.

  2. Если бы Элеонора знала адрес гражданина Чернова, она бы посетила его во время своего визита в Минск.

  3. Если Стив придет, покажите ему этот доклад.

  4. Если бы у моего брата было время сейчас, он бы помог им.

  5. Он мог бы это сделать, если бы попытался.

  6. Вы могли бы застать его там, если бы зашли в шесть часов.

  7. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.

  8. Если бы вы работали усерднее в прошлом году, вы бы теперь хорошо знали английский язык.

  9. Мы будем подписывать контракт, если нам будут предоставлены выгодные скидки.

  10. Если бы я была принцессой, я бы жила во дворце.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на

наклонение.

Образец:

Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю

почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the

morning mail. (Indicative Mood)



  1. Прекратите же драться, ребята!

  2. Всем расслабиться!

  3. Прошлой зимой я проводил много времени в библиотеке.

4. Если бы мы так много знали о ней, мы бы знали и о Монике.

5. Я сказал, что уже напишу письмо к пяти часам.

6. Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.

7. Смотрите, не захлопните дверь при выходе.

8. Было необходимо, чтобы они приняли меры немедленно.

9. Мы переведем статью к пяти часам.

10. Он сказал, что он уже сдаст экзамены к первому июля.

\

Часть 4



Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.

Variant 3

Часть 1

Alcohol

Alcohol consumption before using the roads – whether as a driver or a pedestrian – increases the likelihood of a crash occurring, as well as the likelihood that death or serious injury will result. The risk of a road traffic crash begins to increase significantly at a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level of 0.04 g/dl and rises steeply after that for each small increase in BAC.

Youth and alcohol — In many countries, a high proportion of car and motorcycle drivers involved in crashes are under the influence of alcohol. Many of these are young road users under the age of 25 years. Age is a factor that has a bearing on the risk of young people who have consumed alcohol incurring road traffic injuries. A number of interventions that have been tried, particularly in high-income countries; have led to declining numbers of traffic deaths related to alcohol use among young road users. These strategies have included the following:

Introducing laws on blood alcohol concentration. Setting and enforcing a legal blood alcohol concentration limit is key to reducing alcohol impairment among road users. Passing a drink–driving law and enforcing it can reduce the number of road deaths by 20%.



Enforcing blood alcohol limits. Consistent enforcement of BAC limits is essential for them to be effective. There are a number of ways enforcement can be implemented

• Random breath testing: This is a highly effective means of reducing alcohol-related traffic injuries.

• Sobriety checks: In these checks drivers are stopped at particular checkpoints or road blocks and only those suspected of alcohol impairment are then tested.

Restricting young or inexperienced drivers. Various methods have been adopted to restrict drinking and driving among younger drivers.

• Lower BAC limits for younger drivers: the risk of a crash for inexperienced young adult drivers has been shown to start to increase substantially at lower BAC levels than for older drivers.

• Licensing restrictions: An example of licensing restrictions for young drivers is graduated driver licensing.

Raising the legal drinking age. Minimum drinking-age laws specify an age below which purchase or public consumption of alcoholic beverages is illegal. The laws may also include penalties for possession or consumption of alcohol by those who are underage.

Introducing disincentives for drink-driving. Disincentive schemes make unsafe behaviour less attractive. In some schemes, drivers are given penalty points if found to be driving while impaired, or even risk losing their driving license completely.

Restricting the availability of alcohol to young drivers. Restrictions on the hours or days in which alcoholic beverages are sold, as well as on locations where alcohol can be sold, have been tried in an effort to reduce drink–driving. These strategies, along with reducing demand through appropriate taxation and pricing mechanisms, are among the most cost effective ways of reducing drink–driving among young people. Enforcement efforts have also targeted illegal sales and service of alcohol to young people under the legal drinking age.
I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова

на английский язык.

пешеход –

смерть –

авария –


пропорция –

кровь –


закон –

содержание алкоголя в крови –

подозрительный –

существенно –

снизить –
II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What increases the likelihood of a crash occurring?

  2. When does the risk of a road traffic crash begin to increase?

  3. What is the key to reducing alcohol impairment among road users?

  4. In what way is it possible to define alcohol in organism?

  5. When does the risk of a crash for inexperienced young adult drivers start to increase?

  6. Which ways are among the most cost effective ways of reducing drink–driving among young people?


III. Письменно переведите абзацы 1, 2 на русский язык.

Часть 2


Conditioning System

Most of us like to travel at the same comfort level that we are accustomed to at work or even at home. You just slide a lever or push a button to change from high temperature to low temperature or vice-versa inside the car. There are various components of an automotive air conditioning system which contribute in making the atmosphere inside the car pleasant. Some of the major components are: compressor, condenser, evaporator.

Compressor: this part of the air conditioning system is primarily a belt driven pump which is fastened to the engine. The compressor is also most commonly known as the "heart of the cooling system". The main job of this unit is to transfer the compressed refrigerant air. The suction or intake side of the compressor pulls in the refrigerant air from the outlet of the evaporator. Then the air is compressed and sent to the condenser. Here the system transfers the heat, which was absorbed by the condenser from the within the vehicle.

Condenser: a condenser of the cooling system in the car will look almost the same like the radiator of the vehicle. The main function of this area is to radiate heat. It is very important that the air flow of the condenser works properly every time the air conditioning system is in operation.

Evaporator: this unit works as a heat absorbing component and is situated inside the vehicle. The evaporator helps to dehumidify the air inside the car. On warm days if you see water dripping from the bottom of your car then do not fear about anything being wrong. It is just the evaporator blocking out dust particles and pollen from entering the inside of the car. These particles get stuck to the wet surface of this unit and are then drained off to the outside of the vehicle.
I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.

рычаг –


наоборот –

конденсатор –

с ремённым приводом –

устройство –

втягивать –

транспортное средство –

излучать тепло –

внутри –


частички пыли –
II. Письменно выполните перифраз второго абзаца.

III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

Часть 3


I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме

  1. Mary (to break) her mother’s favourite vase.

  2. Peter and Sasha (to watch) TV set at the moment.

  3. My mother (to look) for her glasses at 7 p.m. yesterday?

  4. My friend (not to live) in Moscow, he (to live) in Sochi.

  5. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my friends there.

  6. I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.

  7. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and could not meet me.

  8. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we (to come).

  9. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine) brightly.

  10. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be) over.

  11. Nina never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.

  12. I did not recognize Helen as I (not to see) her for a very long time and she greatly (to change).

  13. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.

  14. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait for two hours before another one (to come).

  15. My mother and sister (to talk) at 7 o’clock yesterday morning?

  16. My wish (to be) to become an artist, that is why I (to study) at the Arts Academy.

  17. Everybody (to be) in the garden.

  18. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow.

  19. Look! Kate (to go) to school.

  20. At 5 o’clock last week she (to learn) to drive the car.

II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в страдательном залоге.

Образец:

The stone broke the window. - The window was broken by the stone.



  1. Yablochkov invented the electric lamp.

  2. Mary had helped John before Mother came.

  3. Richard threw a stone.

  4. They offered me a chair.

  5. He got all the money.

  6. A mother promised a new toy to the boy.

  7. The snow will cover the ground.

  8. The twister left a path of destruction.

  9. Kathy chose James to be her assistant.

  10. Software Workshop hosted many fine sites.

  11. They asked us to be there at eight o’clock.

  12. Mary caught the ball.

  13. The children of Sparta got a military education.

  14. They will complete the experiments by the end of this week.

  15. She looked after her little sister when her mother was at work.

III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования времен

  1. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)

  2. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)

  3. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)

  4. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).

  5. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)

  6. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)

  7. He has said that he ------------------- a letter. (to receive)

  8. Mary knows that you ---------------- busy. (to be)

  9. Once you ----------------- something, you cannot take it back. (to say)

  10. If you want to show another person your feelings, never ------------------- a letter. (to write)

  11. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)

  12. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)

  13. He kept quite that he --------------------- please me. (may)

  14. Who told you that goats ----------------- on grass? (to live)

  15. He said that he -------------------- not believe it even if he saw it with his own eyes. (would)

IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного предложения

Образец:

Мы бы подписали контракт, если бы нам дали хорошую скидку. – We would have

signed the contract if they had given us a good discount. (условное предложение III типа)


  1. Если бы я жил во дворце, у меня бы ли бы слуги, которые бы обслуживали меня.

  2. Если бы я был богат, я бы отправился в кругосветное путешествие.

  3. Что бы ты делал, если бы твой ребенок свалился в воду?

  4. Если я не буду много гулять, я смогу больше поработать.

  5. Вечером, когда я приду домой, я приму ванну.

  6. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.

  7. Ecли на выходных будет дождь, я останусь дома.

  8. Если я пойду за покупками, я куплю газету.

  9. Если бы я был в Вашингтоне, я бы увидел Белый Дом.

  10. Что бы ты делал, если бы увидел приведение?

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на

наклонение.

Образец:

Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю

почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the

morning mail. (Indicative Mood)



  1. Вы работали в этом банке с 1999?

  2. Он предложил, чтобы вопрос был обсужден на следующем собрании.

  3. Не ждите.

  4. Он живет в Москве пять лет.

  5. Они покрыли товары брезентом, чтобы они не были повреждены дождем.

  6. Непременно приходите к нам сегодня вечером.

  7. Как бы я хотел бы, чтобы он был с нами!

  8. Пусть Мария сходит за словарем.

  9. Берегите себя, пожалуйста.

  10. Я думаю, что так много любви могло бы вас убить.

Часть 4


Составьте резюме для устройства на работу.

Variant 4

Часть 1

The importance of emergency medical services

Many initiatives for cutting the volume of road traffic injuries focus on preventing crashes and on stopping their consequences from occurring. Much, though, can be done to reduce the deaths and injuries that occur as a result of road traffic crashes by strengthening a country’s emergency medical services – not only for children and young people, but for all road traffic victims. This includes pre-hospital care, hospital care and rehabilitation.

Pre-hospital care. At the scene of the crash, prompt high-quality pre-hospital care can save many lives after a road traffic crash has occurred. In places where formal emergency medical services exist, usually with ambulances, they are most effective if their equipment, training, infrastructure and operations are standardized. These vehicles need to be equipped with supplies and medical devices for children as well as for adults, e.g. airway tubes, cervical collars, blood pressure cuffs, etc. In addition, staff need to be trained on how to evaluate and manage injured children who are not “just little adults” - what is normal in an adult may not necessarily be normal in a child and vice versa.

Where no pre-hospital trauma care system exists, the first and most basic tier of a system can be established by teaching interested community members basic first aid techniques. In many countries, organizations like the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or St John’s Ambulance teach young, interested members of a community how to recognize an emergency, call for help and provide basic first aid until formally trained health-care personnel arrive to give additional care.

Starting a new emergency medical service can be a reasonable step, especially along busy roads with high crash rates. However, these services can be costly. In all cases, and especially in those where there are no formal emergency medical services, pre-hospital care can be improved by building upon existing, even if informal, systems of pre-hospital care and transport.

Hospital care. The moment that an injured child enters the hospital is another point at which lives can be saved. Improving the organization and planning of trauma care services is an affordable and sustainable way to raising the quality and outcome of care. This includes improving the human resources that are required to provide this care – including skills, training and staffing – and the physical resources, such as the equipment and supplies needed for the services. Although the essential elements of trauma care need not be expensive, the cost of care can be a barrier to access, especially when user fees are required in advance of services in emergency situations.

Rehabilitation. Finally, many injured survivors of traffic crashes lead lives of disability. Much of this disability, particularly among youth, could be avoided with improved rehabilitation services. This includes improved services in health care facilities and improved access to community-based rehabilitation. Strengthening such rehabilitation services globally is needed to help minimize the extent of disability after injury and to help those with persistent disabilities achieve their highest potential, leading full and meaningful lives.
I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова

на английский язык.

количество –

снизить –

авария –


доврачебная помощь –

высококвалифицированный –

манжетка для измерения кровяного давления –

непредвиденный случай, крайняя необходимость –

персонал, трудовые ресурсы –

взнос –


нетрудоспособность –
II. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What can be done to reduce the deaths and injuries that occur as a result of road traffic crashes?

  2. What need vehicles with ambulances to be equipped with?

  3. Why need staff to be trained on how to evaluate and manage injured children?

  4. What can the first and most basic tier of a system, where no pre-hospital trauma care system exists be established?

  5. What is an affordable and sustainable way to raising the quality and outcome of hospital care? What does it include?

  6. How can disability be avoided?


III. Письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3 на русский язык.

Часть 2


Helical Gears

The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. When two teeth on a helical gear system engage, the contact starts at one end of the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate, until the two teeth are in full engagement. This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears. For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all car transmissions.

Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a thrust load on the gear when they mesh. Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can support this thrust load. One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct, they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees.

Simple helical gearing has the disadvantage of producing a thrust that tends to move the gears along their respective shafts. This thrust can be avoided by using double helical, or herringbone, gears, which have V-shaped teeth composed of half a right-handed helical tooth and half a left-handed helical tooth.

Another variation of helical gearing is provided by the worm gear, also called the screw gear. A worm gear is a long, thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical gear. Warm gears differ from helical gears in that the teeth of the worm slide across the teeth of the driven gear instead of exerting a direct rolling pressure. Worm gears are used chiefly to transmit rotation, with a large reduction in speed, from one shaft to another at a 90˚ angle.
I. Переведите выделенные слова на русский язык. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению, в котором употреблено данное слово. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.

шестерня со спиральными зубьями –

зацепление –

ровно, плавно –

цилиндрическая прямозубая шестерня –

угол –


осевая нагрузка –

перпендикулярный –

V-образный, клиновидный –
сцепляться (с чем-л.) –

снижение –


II. Письменно выполните перифраз четвертого абзаца.

III. Поставьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

Часть 3


I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме

  1. He (to play) the guitar at the concert tomorrow evening.

  2. Why you (to decide) to become a writer?

  3. Mary (to break) her mother’s favourite vase.

  4. Peter and Sasha (to watch) TV set at the moment.

  5. My mother (to look) for her glasses at 7 p.m. yesterday?

  6. What book you (to read) now?

  7. He (not to play) chess every day.

  8. He (to go) for a walk after dinner

  9. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine) brightly.

  10. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be) over.

  11. Nina never (to be) here before and she (to like) the theatre very much.

  12. My mother and sister (to talk) at 7 o’clock yesterday morning?

  13. My wish (to be) to become an artist, that is why I (to study) at the Arts Academy.

  14. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we (to come).

  15. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine) brightly.

  16. The performance already (to begin), and they (to have) to wait till the first act (to be) over.

  17. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room.

  18. He (to play) the guitar at the concert tomorrow evening.

  19. When the teacher told the boy to recite the poem? The boy (to burst) into tears: he (not to remember), though he (to try) to learn his lesson so hard.

  20. I (to send) them the telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me.

II. Переделайте предложения в активном залоге в предложения в страдательном залоге.

Образец:

Software Workshop hosts many fine sites. - Many fine sites are hosted by Software Workshop.

1. We must finish our work as soon as possible.

2. Mary will have helped John.

3. You ought to translate this article at once.

4. Tom will deliver the mail.

5. A team of famous scientists have made all observations.

6. The hurricane has destroyed several houses last week.

7. I've already bought a new computer.

8. They grow cotton in Egypt.

9. They were discussing a new plan when we came.

10. She always does her work in the evening.

11. I love my mother.

12. A masked gunman shot him.

13. I am watering my plants every day.

14. Jack stole 100 dollars.

15. The panda is eating shoots and leaves.

III. Поставьте глагол в правильной форме, согласно правилам согласования времен

1. He spoke so fast that I ------------------- not follow him. (can)

2. His health has improved since he -------------------- from the hills. (return)

3. My sister (not to rest) now. She (to help) mother in the kitchen.



  1. It is necessary that he ------------------- us the documents. (to send)

  2. He has said that he ------------------- a letter. (to receive)

6. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)

7. The teacher asked the boys whether they ------------------ the problems. (to solve)

8. We have never discovered who --------------- it. (to do)


  1. He has said that he ------------------- a letter yesterday. (to receive)

  2. Our Holy Books tell us that man ------------------ mortal. (to be)

  3. He ------------------- once stronger than he ------------------ now. (to be/ to be)

  4. It ------------------- not so cold yesterday as it --------------- today. (to be/ to be)

  5. I am not satisfied with what I ---------------- (to do).

  6. I thought that she --------------- knew that he had taken the first place in the chess tournament. (to know)

  7. He refused to go to the theatre as he ------------------ an examination in English in a few days. (to have)

IV. Переведите предложения на английский язык, определите тип условного предложения

Образец:

Если бы я был Премьер Министром, я бы увеличил налог для богатых людей. – If I were Prime Minister, I’d increase tax for rich people. ( II )



  1. Если бы у них были деньги, они бы купили новую машину?

  2. Если бы она знала ответ, то сказала бы нам.

  3. Если бы мы жили в России, мы бы быстро выучили русский язык.

  4. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.

  5. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.

  6. Если я увижу его завтра, я спрошу его об этом.

  7. Вы могли бы застать его там, если бы зашли в шесть часов.

  8. Если бы я видела его вчера, я бы спросила его об этом.

  9. Если бы вы работали усерднее в прошлом году, вы бы теперь хорошо знали английский язык.

  10. Мы будем подписывать контракт, если нам будут предоставлены выгодные скидки.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на

наклонение.

Образец:

Управляющий вошел в офис, сел за письменный стол и начал просматривать утреннюю

почту. – The manager entered the office, sat down at his desk, and began to look through the

morning mail. (Indicative Mood)



  1. Уходи-ка ты!

  2. Не выбрасывайте ничего такого, что может пригодиться.

  3. Не прикидывайся невинной (овечкой).

  4. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы принял их предложение.

  5. Он говорил, как если бы он был специалистом по этому вопросу.

  6. Оденьтесь как можно теплее.

  7. Кто-нибудь, ответьте по телефону/возьмите трубку, пожалуйста!

  8. Ну, ты, убирайся!

  9. Как бы я хотел бы, чтобы он был с нами!

  10. Пусть Мария сходит за словарем.


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